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Hazel Francis

Bio: Hazel Francis is an academic researcher from Institute of Education. The author has contributed to research in topics: Reading (process) & Spelling. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 8 publications receiving 68 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored how 22 higher degree students on a course in education understood selected text extracts from different genres when reading at their own pace under conditions expected to promote thorough understanding.
Abstract: This study provides empirical support for the proposal that student learning in higher education is affected not only by prior subject knowledge and by approaches to learning but also by ability to deal with text genre. It first explores how 22 higher degree students on a course in education understood selected text extracts from different genres when reading at their own pace under conditions expected to promote thorough understanding. After reading a text each student wrote answers to a set of questions about their reading and understanding of the text. In tape-recorded discussion with another reader of the same text they then looked for similarities and differences between their responses. They later reported on their feelings about the task and text. Understandings were found to vary between readers of the same text, difference being largely attributed by the students to difficulty with the language and structure of the texts in terms which pointed to the genre. Considerable anxiety about difficulty and difference in understanding was partly allayed through discussion, but understanding was not much furthered. Most students felt that more work on the texts would be fruitful. In a second part of the study a further 39 students from a new intake to the same course were asked about text types in their recommended and actual course reading. The types they reported as most frequently recommended were also felt to be the most difficult for reasons to do with text genre. They were also those from which the earlier text extracts had been drawn. Theoretical and practical issues are discussed.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The attribution of function of various kinds to elements of child speech is discussed, and the question of the validity of the interpretations on which such attribution rests is explored with reference to Halliday's work on the development of meaning.
Abstract: The attribution of function of various kinds to elements of child speech is discussed, and the question of the validity of the interpretations on which such attribution rests is explored with reference to Halliday's work on the development of meaning. Work in the philosophy of language is used to explore the kind of evidence needed for valid interpretation, and its systematic nature within a framework of the structure of linguistic behaviour. It is argued that theoretical clarity in this area would aid the study of both language use and language acquisition.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a longitudinal study of the development of various aspects of language and literacy in first school children, a selection of standardised measures and measures based on classroom tasks was used to explore relationships between variables within and across four different time-points as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In a longitudinal study of the development of various aspects of language and literacy in first school children a selection of standardised measures and measures based on classroom tasks was used to explore relationships between variables within and across four different time-points. A number of findings reported in the literature were replicated, but there were differences with respect to the roles of knowledge about language units and explicit phonemic awareness and the predictive relationships between speech, reading and writing. Interpretation suggests that these might lie in different conceptions of spelling and reading that are closely related to the types of measures and research designs used. It also suggests that utility of current research findings is severely restricted by (i) a focus on reading or spelling isolated words or non-words, (ii) treatment of literacy development as based on encoding and decoding between spoken and written forms whether as whole words or as phoneme-grapheme correspondence, and (iii) lack of information about the home and school curricula experienced by children acting as participants in research experiments. A research programme is proposed to identify the form and character of soundly based findings which might be used to inform curriculum planning.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored the cognitive and affective reactions of 25 higher degree students to a text reading task under conditions which were designed to induce thorough understanding, and found that with reading processes associated in the literature with what has been termed a "deep" approach to studying text, understandings varied between read ers both between and within texts.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article identified different reading progress patterns in children in the early primary years, extending the findings of other studies conducted with older children and found that the best readers at 7 had exhibited steady progress over two years on a linear gradient established during or before the first few months in school, while others exhibited curvilinear progress patterns, characterised by a gentle gradient over some months followed by a steeper incline which matched or exceeded the rate of progress of better readers, in some cases catching up.
Abstract: Summary. This study identified different reading progress patterns in children in the early primary years, extending the findings of other studies conducted with older children. Analysis of both standardised and teacher assessments suggested that the best readers at 7 had exhibited steady progress over two years on a linear gradient established during or before the first few months in school. Others, however, exhibited curvilinear progress patterns, characterised by a gentle gradient over some months followed by a steeper incline which matched or exceeded the rate of progress of the better readers, in some cases catching up. The poorest readers at 7 had not reached this point of “take-off”, though some were showing signs of being near to it. The findings are examined in the light of the nature of the assessments adopted. Their significance for teachers' identification of pupils' support needs both before and after they move towards independent reading, and for the use and interpretation of standardised test scores, are discussed.

5 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored problems with the assumed relationships between 'conceptions of learning', 'perceptions of the learning environment', 'approaches to learning' and 'learning outcomes', and suggested that whilst the model may be successful in creating a generalised description of the 'elite' goals and values of academic culture, it says surprisingly little about the majority of students in a mass system.
Abstract: This article focuses on the surprising lack of critique in the pedagogical literatures of higher education in relation to the use of ideas surrounding deep and surface approaches to learning. The article explores problems with the assumed relationships between 'conceptions of learning', 'perceptions of the learning environment', 'approaches to learning' and 'learning outcomes', and suggests that whilst the model may be successful in creating a generalised description of the 'elite' goals and values of academic culture, it says surprisingly little about the majority of students in a mass system. After exploring research in the area of academic literacies as an alternative approach to understanding student learning, it is suggested that higher education is going to have to find new ways of conceptualising its core values and activities if it is to become truly accessible to the widest possible range of 'lifelong learners'.

389 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a middle path between conventional and radical approaches to pedagogy is proposed to identify examples of "older" values in higher education pedagogical cultures, which make it difficult or even impossible for some students to learn.
Abstract: Growing concerns about retention and attrition rates in a mass and increasingly marketised higher education system have encouraged the idea that ‘meeting learner needs’ should be a key focus for institutional attention. It is suggested that this approach is unrealistic, however, because of the extent of the diversity which it attempts to respond to. An alternative response is to move away from the individualised focus on needs, deficits and ‘support’, towards a consideration of ‘activities, patterns of interaction and communication failures’, in relation to higher education pedagogical cultures. This move reconceptualises the idea of ‘barriers to learning’, attempting to understand how more subtle aspects of higher education pedagogical cultures may themselves be creating conditions which make it difficult, or even impossible, for some students to learn. Deliberately forging a middle path between conventional and radical approaches to pedagogy, the article attempts to identify examples of ‘older’ values a...

349 citations

DOI
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: Apprenticeship is an inherently social learning method with a long history of helping novices become experts in professions such as midwifery, construction, and law as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Apprenticeship is an inherently social learning method with a long history of helping novices become experts in fields as diverse as midwifery, construction, and law. At the center of apprenticeship is the concept of more experienced people assisting less experienced ones, providing structure and examples to support the attainment of goals. Traditionally apprenticeship has been associated with learning in the context of becoming skilled in a trade or craft-a task that typically requires both the acquisition of knowledge, concepts, and perhaps psychomotor skills and the development of the ability to apply the knowledge and skills in a context-appropriate manner-and far predates formal schooling as it is known today. In many nonindustrializednations apprenticeship remains thepredominantmethodof teaching and learning. However, the overall concept of learning from experts through social interactions is not one that should be relegated to vocational and trade-based training while K-12 and higher educational institutions seek to prepare students for operating in an information-based society. Apprenticeship as a method of teaching and learning is just as relevant within the cognitive and metacognitive domain as it is in the psychomotor domain.

213 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This longitudinal study of how preverbal infants communicate with their mothers utilized the situation in which the infant was seated in a highchair at lunchtime, finding that infants' communicative attempts were often unsuccessful.
Abstract: This longitudinal study of how preverbal infants communicate with their mothers utilized the situation in which the infant was seated in a highchair at lunchtime. This situation predisposed infants to use communication as a means, since they were often unable to achieve their goals without assistance. It was found that infants' communicative attempts were often unsuccessful; the present study focussed on how infants and mothers worked to establish the infants' intents after communication failures. In the preverbal negotiation of failed messages infants direct communicative behaviours to their mothers which their mothers fail to comprehend immediately, NEGOTIATIONS occur when mothers help infants make their intents clear. Negotiation episodes have four components: the infant's initial signal, the mother's comprehension failure, infant repairs and episode outcome. Changes in these components provide much information about how infants' communicative skills evolve during the transition to a linguistically based communication system. Negotiation episodes are contrasted with episodes called IMMEDIATE SUCCESSES in which the mother readily comprehends the intent behind the infant's signal, and MISSED ATTEMPTS in which the mother fails to pick up on the infant's signal. Taken together these three types of communicative episode reveal a degree of persistence and creativity on the part of the preverbal infant that is surprising in the light of prior research. Such episodes further reveal that the course of preverbal communication is NOT smooth.

208 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of article titles reporting on research into student learning was carried out in three key higher education journals, and the results of this were then considered in the context of other, related research perspectives as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This article is a response to a request to consider the following three questions in relation to the recent history of research into student learning in higher education: What do we know?, What do we need to know?, and What might we do about it? A survey of article titles reporting on research into student learning was carried out in three key higher education journals, and the results of this were then considered in the context of other, related research perspectives The article will first report on the results of this review, and then discuss these results in the context of theoretical moves in psychology and sociology over the same period of time The trends identified in the higher education journals will then be compared to research into student learning in higher education which is published in two other disciplinary areas: adult education and sociolinguistics After raising some questions that arise from these comparisons, the final section of the article will outline some suggestions about ways i

197 citations