Heikki M. Salo
Bio: Heikki M. Salo is an academic researcher from University of Oulu. The author has contributed to research in topics: Phylogenetic tree & Berry. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 4 publications receiving 43 citations.
TL;DR: The manipulation of stress response pathways may provide a way to enhance somatic embryo production in recalcitrant Scots pine SE lines.
Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is one of the methods with the highest potential for the vegetative propagation of commercially important coniferous species. However, many conifers, including Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), are recalcitrant to SE and a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the SE process is needed. In Scots pine SE cultures, embryo production is commonly induced by the removal of auxin, addition of abscisic acid (ABA) and the desiccation of cell masses by polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the present study, we focus on the possible link between the induction of somatic embryo formation and cellular stress responses such as hydrogen peroxide protection, DNA repair, changes in polyamine (PA) metabolism and autophagy. Cellular PA contents and the expression of the PA metabolism genes arginine decarboxylase (ADC), spermidine synthase (SPDS), thermospermine synthase (ACL5) and diamine oxidase (DAO) were analyzed, as well as the expression of catalase (CAT), DNA repair genes (RAD51, KU80) and autophagy-related genes (ATG5, ATG8) throughout the induction of somatic embryo formation in Scots pine SE cultures. Among the embryo-producing SE lines, the expression of ADC, SPDS, ACL5, DAO, CAT, RAD51, KU80 and ATG8 showed consistent profiles. Furthermore, the overall low expression of the stress-related genes suggests that cells in those SE lines were not stressed but recognized the ABA+PEG treatment as a signal to trigger the embryogenic pathway. In those SE lines that were unable to produce embryos, cells seemed to experience the ABA+PEG treatment mostly as osmotic stress and activated a wide range of stress defense mechanisms. Altogether, our results suggest that the direction to the embryogenic pathway is connected with cellular stress responses in Scots pine SE cultures. Thus, the manipulation of stress response pathways may provide a way to enhance somatic embryo production in recalcitrant Scots pine SE lines.
TL;DR: It is suggested that differential DNA methylation and gene expression contribute to local adaptation in Scots pine populations and may enhance the fitness of trees under rapidly changing climatic conditions.
Abstract: Long-lived conifers are vulnerable to climate change because classical evolutionary processes are slow in developing adaptive responses. Therefore, the capacity of a genotype to adopt different phenotypes is important. Gene expression is the primary mechanism that converts genome-encoded information into phenotypes, and DNA methylation is employed in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We investigated variations in global DNA methylation and gene expression between three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations located in northern and southern Finland using mature seeds. Gene expression levels were studied in six DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) genes, which were characterized in this study, and in 19 circadian clock genes regulating adaptive traits. In embryos, expression diversity was found for three DNMT genes, which maintain DNA methylation. The expression of two DNMT genes was strongly correlated with climate variables, which suggests a role for DNA methylation in local adaptation. For adaptation-related genes, expression levels showed between-population variation in 11 genes in megagametophytes and in eight genes in embryos, and many of these genes were linked to climate factors. Altogether, our results suggest that differential DNA methylation and gene expression contribute to local adaptation in Scots pine populations and may enhance the fitness of trees under rapidly changing climatic conditions.
TL;DR: An overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products is provided in this paper.
Abstract: Berries represent one of the most important and high-valued group of modern-day health-beneficial "superfoods" whose dietary consumption has been recognized to be beneficial for human health for a long time. In addition to being delicious, berries are rich in nutrients, vitamins, and several bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and hydrolysable tannins. However, due to their high value, berries and berry-based products are often subject to fraudulent adulteration, commonly for economical gain, but also unintentionally due to misidentification of species. Deliberate adulteration often comprises the substitution of high-value berries with lower value counterparts and mislabeling of product contents. As adulteration is deceptive toward customers and presents a risk for public health, food authentication through different methods is applied as a countermeasure. Although many authentication methods have been developed in terms of fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost analysis and have been applied in the authentication of a myriad of food products and species, their application on berries and berry-based products is still limited. The present review provides an overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products. We provide an overview of the earlier use and recent advances of these methods, as well as discuss the advances and drawbacks related to their application.
TL;DR: In this article, the elemental composition of wild bilberries and cultivated highbush blueberries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma with optical emission detection (ICP-OED), while isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used for the determination of isotope ratios values.
Abstract: Vaccinium genus berries-wild bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and cultivated highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)-are consumed worldwide, and their consumption has a trend of stable increase. Thus, considering their wide use in ethnomedicine, for juice and jam production, as functional food, as well as their use in preparations of extracts which have application potential in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, studies regarding the composition of these berries are of special importance. The aim of this study is to characterise the elemental and isotopic composition, as well as variation in element concentration in bilberries gathered from different sites in Northern Europe and in commercially available blueberry samples from across the World. Furthermore, our aim was to develop tools for authenticity and quality control of these berries. The elemental composition of berries was analysed using inductively coupled plasma with optical emission detection (ICP-OED), while isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used for the determination of isotope ratio values. The results demonstrated detectable differences between macro- and microelement values in bilberries. IRMS analysis of blueberries revealed significant differences in isotope ratios based on the place of origin, indicating the possibility to use this analytical method for authenticity testing. In none of the samples, pollution was detected, even though there were indications of different growth conditions and geochemical differences affecting bilberry composition.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors assembled five Vaccinium chloroplast sequences representing the economically relevant berry types: northern highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum), southern highbush green apple, rabbiteye blueberry, V. virgatum, and bilberry.
Abstract: Abstract Vaccinium is a large genus of shrubs that includes a handful of economically important berry crops. Given the numerous hybridizations and polyploidization events, the taxonomy of this genus has remained the subject of long debate. In addition, berries and berry-based products are liable to adulteration, either fraudulent or unintentional due to misidentification of species. The availability of more genomic information could help achieve higher phylogenetic resolution for the genus, provide molecular markers for berry crops identification, and a framework for efficient genetic engineering of chloroplasts. Therefore, in this study we assembled five Vaccinium chloroplast sequences representing the economically relevant berry types: northern highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum ), southern highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum hybrids), rabbiteye blueberry ( V. virgatum ), lowbush blueberry ( V. angustifolium ), and bilberry ( V. myrtillus ). Comparative analyses showed that the Vaccinium chloroplast genomes exhibited an overall highly conserved synteny and sequence identity among them. Polymorphic regions included the expansion/contraction of inverted repeats, gene copy number variation, simple sequence repeats, indels, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Based on their in silico discrimination power, we suggested variants that could be developed into molecular markers for berry crops identification. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple origins of highbush blueberry plastomes, likely due to the hybridization events that occurred during northern and southern highbush blueberry domestication.
10 Jan 2008
TL;DR: In this paper, a model of the seed system is proposed to study longevity and aging in the context of plant propagation and plant biodiversity conservation, which is a major challenge for the conservation of plant biodiversity and for crop success.
Abstract: The seed constitutes the main vector of plant propagation and it is a critical development stage with many specificities. Seed longevity is a major challenge for the conservation of plant biodiversity and for crop success. Seeds possess a wide range of systems (protection, detoxification, repair) allowing them to survive in the dry state and to preserve a high germination ability. Therefore, the seed system provides an appropriate model to study longevity and aging.
TL;DR: The role of signaling is examined from the start of cell differentiation through the early steps on the embryogenic pathway, as well as its relation to a plant’s tolerance of different types of stress.
Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a means by which plants can regenerate bipolar structures from a somatic cell. During the process of cell differentiation, the explant responds to endogenous stimuli, which trigger the induction of a signaling response and, consequently, modify the gene program of the cell. SE is probably the most studied plant regeneration model, but to date it is the least understood due to the unclear mechanisms that occur at a cellular level. In this review, the authors seek to emphasize the importance of signaling on plant SE, highlighting the interactions between the different plant growth regulators (PGR), mainly auxins, cytokinins (CKs), ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA), during the induction of SE. The role of signaling is examined from the start of cell differentiation through the early steps on the embryogenic pathway, as well as its relation to a plant's tolerance of different types of stress. Furthermore, the role of genes encoded to transcription factors (TFs) during the embryogenic process such as the LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC), WUSCHEL (WUS), BABY BOOM (BBM) and CLAVATA (CLV) genes, Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), APETALA 2 (AP2) and epigenetic factors is discussed.
TL;DR: It is shown that epigenetic memory serves as a mechanism of plant adaptation to a rapidly changing environment and, in particular, to aggressive biotic and abiotic stresses and a deep understanding of this mechanism could serve to elaborate more effective and safe approaches to plant protection.
Abstract: Unlike animals, plants are immobile and could not actively escape the effects of aggressive environmental factors, such as pathogenic microorganisms, insect pests, parasitic plants, extreme temperatures, drought, and many others. To counteract these unfavorable encounters, plants have evolved very high phenotypic plasticity. In a rapidly changing environment, adaptive phenotypic changes often occur in time frames that are too short for the natural selection of adaptive mutations. Probably, some kind of epigenetic variability underlines environmental adaptation in these cases. Indeed, isogenic plants often have quite variable phenotypes in different habitats. There are examples of successful "invasions" of relatively small and genetically homogenous plant populations into entirely new habitats. The unique capability of quick environmental adaptation appears to be due to a high tendency to transmit epigenetic changes between plant generations. Multiple studies show that epigenetic memory serves as a mechanism of plant adaptation to a rapidly changing environment and, in particular, to aggressive biotic and abiotic stresses. In wild nature, this mechanism underlies, to a very significant extent, plant capability to live in different habitats and endure drastic environmental changes. In agriculture, a deep understanding of this mechanism could serve to elaborate more effective and safe approaches to plant protection.
TL;DR: The current study identified a series of potential metabolites and corresponding genes responsible for SE transdifferentiation, which provides a valuable foundation for a deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cell totipotency at the molecular and biochemical levels.
Abstract: Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a key step during genetic engineering. In the current study, integrated widely targeted metabolomics and RNA sequencing were performed to investigate the dynamic metabolic and transcriptional profiling of cotton SE. Our data revealed that a total of 581 metabolites were present in nonembryogenic staged calli (NEC), primary embryogenic calli (PEC), and initiation staged globular embryos (GE). Of the differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs), nucleotides, and lipids were specifically accumulated during embryogenic differentiation, whereas flavones and hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives were accumulated during somatic embryo development. Additionally, metabolites related to purine metabolism were significantly enriched in PEC vs. NEC, whereas in GE vs. PEC, DAMs were remarkably associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. An association analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome data indicated that purine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis were co-mapped based on the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) database. Moreover, purine metabolism-related genes associated with signal recognition, transcription, stress, and lipid binding were significantly upregulated. Moreover, several classic somatic embryogenesis (SE) genes were highly correlated with their corresponding metabolites that were involved in purine metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis. The current study identified a series of potential metabolites and corresponding genes responsible for SE transdifferentiation, which provides a valuable foundation for a deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cell totipotency at the molecular and biochemical levels.
TL;DR: Drought caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment, abscisic acid (ABA) responses, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.
Abstract: Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) is a major fast-growing timber species planted in southern China, a region of seasonal drought. Using a drought-tolerance genotype of Masson pine, we conducted large-scale transcriptome sequencing using Illumina technology. This work aimed to evaluate the transcriptomic responses of Masson pine to different levels of drought stress. First, 3397, 1695 and 1550 unigenes with differential expression were identified by comparing plants subjected to light, moderate or severe drought with control plants. Second, several gene ontology (GO) categories (oxidation-reduction and metabolism) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways (plant hormone signal transduction and metabolic pathways) were enriched, indicating that the expression levels of some genes in these enriched GO terms and pathways were altered under drought stress. Third, several transcription factors (TFs) associated with circadian rhythms (HY5 and LHY), signal transduction (ERF), and defense responses (WRKY) were identified, and these TFs may play key roles in adapting to drought stress. Drought also caused significant changes in the expression of certain functional genes linked to osmotic adjustment (P5CS), abscisic acid (ABA) responses (NCED, PYL, PP2C and SnRK), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (GPX, GST and GSR). These transcriptomic results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of drought stress adaptation in Masson pine.