Other affiliations: Centre national de la recherche scientifique, University of Montpellier, IFREMER
Bio: Hélène Moné is an academic researcher from University of Perpignan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Schistosoma mansoni & Schistosoma haematobium. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 88 publications receiving 2066 citations. Previous affiliations of Hélène Moné include Centre national de la recherche scientifique & University of Montpellier.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of Montpellier1, Institut national de la recherche agronomique2, Natural History Museum3, Royal Museum for Central Africa4, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven5, University of Valencia6, Spanish National Research Council7, University of Corsica Pascal Paoli8, University of Toulouse9, Institut de veille sanitaire10
TL;DR: The molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal, and hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak.
Abstract: Summary Background Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak. Methods We did parasitological and malacological surveys at nine potential sites of infection. With the snails found, we carried out snail–parasite compatibility experiments by exposing snails to schistosome larvae recovered from the urine of a locally infected Corsican patient. Genetic analysis of both mitochondrial ( cox1 ) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) DNA data from the Schistosoma eggs or miracidia recovered from the infected patients was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology of this outbreak. Findings We identified two main infection foci along the Cavu River, with many Bulinus truncatus snails found in both locations. Of the 3544 snails recovered across all sites, none were naturally infected, but laboratory-based experimental infections confirmed their compatibility with the schistosomes isolated from patients. Molecular characterisation of 73 eggs or miracidia isolated from 12 patients showed infection with Schistosoma haematobium, S haematobium–Schistosoma bovis hybrids, and S bovis . Further sequence data analysis also showed that the Corsican schistosomes were closely related to those from Senegal in west Africa. Interpretation The freshwater swimming pools of the Cavu River harbour many B truncatus snails, which are capable of transmitting S haematobium -group schistosomes. Our molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal. Hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak, showing how easily and rapidly urogenital schistosomiasis can be introduced and spread into novel areas where Bulinus snails are endemic, and how hybridisation could increase the colonisation potential of schistosomes. Furthermore our results show the potential risk of schistosomiasis outbreaks in other European areas, warranting close monitoring and surveillance of all potential transmission foci. Funding WHO, ANSES, RICET, and the Ministry of Health and Consumption.
TL;DR: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission.
Abstract: Cercariae, like miracidia, are non-parasitic larval stages implicated in the life cycle of all trematodes for the host-to-host parasite transmission. Almost all cercariae are free-living in the external environment. With a few exceptions (cercariae of Halipegus occidualis (Halipegidae) can live several months, Shostak & Esch, 1990a), cercariae have a short active life during which they do not feed, living on accumulated reserves. Most cercariae encyst as metacercariae in second intermediate hosts which are prey of the definitive host; in certain species, the interruption of the active life is achieved by an encystment in the external environment (or a simple immobile waiting strategy in a few species). In some two-host life cycles, the cercariae develop into adults after penetration (this is the case for various species causing human schistosomiasis). Some cercariae do not leave the mollusc which must then be ingested by the definitive host.
TL;DR: The phylogeographic patterns of the black rat from islands in the western Indian Ocean where the species has been introduced are described in comparison with the postulated source area (India).
Abstract: Aim To describe the phylogeographic patterns of the black rat, Rattus rattus, from islands in the western Indian Ocean where the species has been introduced (Madagascar and the neighbouring islands of Reunion, Mayotte and Grande Comore), in comparison with the postulated source area (India). Location Western Indian Ocean: India, Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and the islands of Madagascar, Reunion, Grande Comore and Mayotte. Methods Mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b, tRNA and D-loop, 1762 bp) was sequenced for 71 individuals from 11 countries in the western Indian Ocean. A partial D-loop (419 bp) was also sequenced for eight populations from Madagascar (97 individuals), which were analysed in addition to six previously published populations from southern Madagascar. Results Haplotypes from India and the Arabian Peninsula occupied a basal position in the phylogenetic tree, whereas those from islands were distributed in different monophyletic clusters: Madagascar grouped with Mayotte, while Reunion and Grand Comore were present in two other separate groups. The only exception was one individual from Madagascar (out of 190) carrying a haplotype that clustered with those from Reunion and South Africa. 'Isolation with migration' simulations favoured a model with no recurrent migration between Oman and Madagascar. Mismatch distribution analyses dated the expansion of Malagasy populations on a time-scale compatible with human colonization history. Higher haplotype diversity and older expansion times were found on the east coast of Madagascar compared with the central highlands. Main conclusions Phylogeographic patterns supported the hypothesis of human-mediated colonization of R. rattus from source populations in either the native area (India) or anciently colonized regions (the Arabian Peninsula) to islands of the western Indian Ocean. Despite their proximity, each island has a distinct colonization history. Independent colonization events may have occurred simultaneously in Madagascar and Grande Comore, whereas Mayotte would have been colonized from Madagascar. Reunion was colonized independently, presumably from Europe. Malagasy populations may have originated from a single successful colonization event, followed by rapid expansion, first in coastal zones and then in the central highlands. The congruence of the observed phylogeographic pattern with human colonization events and pathways supports the potential relevance of the black rat in tracing human history.
University of New Mexico1, University of Lagos2, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research3, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation4, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research5, Bangor University6, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras7, Sultan Qaboos University8, University of Carabobo9, Centre national de la recherche scientifique10, Kenya Medical Research Institute11, University of Ghana12, National Institute for Medical Research13, State University of Campinas14, The Open University of Tanzania15, University of Perpignan16, University of Nairobi17, Institut de recherche pour le développement18, Natural History Museum19, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute20
TL;DR: Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics. Adult-stage parasites that infect humans are also occasionally recovered from baboons, rodents, and other mammals. Larval stages of the parasite are dependent upon certain species of freshwater snails in the genus Biomphalaria, which largely determine the parasite's geographical range. How S. mansoni genetic diversity is distributed geographically and among isolates using different hosts has never been examined with DNA sequence data. Here we describe the global phylogeography of S. mansoni using more than 2500 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 143 parasites collected in 53 geographically widespread localities. Considerable within-species mtDNA diversity was found, with 85 unique haplotypes grouping into five distinct lineages. Geographical separation, and not host use, appears to be the most important factor in the diversification of the parasite. East African specimens showed a remarkable amount of variation, comprising three clades and basal members of a fourth, strongly suggesting an East African origin for the parasite 0.30-0.43 million years ago, a time frame that follows the arrival of its snail host. Less but still substantial variation was found in the rest of Africa. A recent colonization of the New World is supported by finding only seven closely related New World haplotypes which have West African affinities. All Brazilian isolates have nearly identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting a founder effect from the establishment and spread of the parasite in this large country.
TL;DR: An outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis has been detected in Europe, with patients affected in France, Germany,1,2 and Italy, and is believed to be associated with infected people arriving from a region endemic for the exclusively African parasite.
Abstract: An outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis has been detected in Europe, with patients affected in France,1,2 Germany,1,2 and Italy. The infection originated in Corsica, in a river north of Porto-Vecchio, a popular tourist destination (figure). The introduction of schistosomiasis is believed to be associated with infected people arriving from a region endemic for the exclusively African parasite, Schistosoma haematobium and disseminating parasite eggs through their urine into snail breeding sites along the river.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
Abstract: The relationship between the two estimates of genetic variation at the DNA level, namely the number of segregating sites and the average number of nucleotide differences estimated from pairwise comparison, is investigated. It is found that the correlation between these two estimates is large when the sample size is small, and decreases slowly as the sample size increases. Using the relationship obtained, a statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis is developed. This method needs only the data of DNA polymorphism, namely the genetic variation within population at the DNA level. A simple method of computer simulation, that was used in order to obtain the distribution of a new statistic developed, is also presented. Applying this statistical method to the five regions of DNA sequences in Drosophila melanogaster, it is found that large insertion/deletion (greater than 100 bp) is deleterious. It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
TL;DR: This current edition of this reference work is written by six major contributors and contains either rewritten or new chapters, including one 29-page chapter entitled "Ophthalmology in the Tropics" by F. C. Rodger, MD.
Abstract: The first edition of this reference work was published in 1898, and the last update was published in 1972. This current edition is written by six major contributors and contains either rewritten or new chapters, including one 29-page chapter entitled "Ophthalmology in the Tropics" by F. C. Rodger, MD. Not only is this material valuable to physicians in endemic areas, but it is also important for travelers to the tropics who may return home with these diseases. Most of the chapters discuss the following aspects of tropical disease: cause, transmission, immunology, epidemiology, geographical distribution, pathologic condition, clinical findings, and diagnosis (including laboratory findings, treatment, and prevention). Beside chapters on infections, there are chapters on disorders due to heat, nutritional diseases, and venoms and poisons, and appendices on protozoology, helminthology, entomology, and clinical pathologic conditions. Excellent illustrations of end-stage pathologic conditions are disconcerting. Ophthalmologists would be most interested in the discussion
TL;DR: Clinical and epidemiological evidence for gender and sex differences in COVID-19 from Europe and China is summarized and the need to better understand the impact of sex and gender on incidence and case fatality of the disease is emphasized.
Abstract: Emerging evidence from China suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is deadlier for infected men than women with a 2.8% fatality rate being reported in Chinese men versus 1.7% in women. Further, sex-disaggregated data for COVID-19 in several European countries show a similar number of cases between the sexes, but more severe outcomes in aged men. Case fatality is highest in men with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions. The mechanisms accounting for the reduced case fatality rate in women are currently unclear but may offer potential to develop novel risk stratification tools and therapeutic options for women and men. The present review summarizes latest clinical and epidemiological evidence for gender and sex differences in COVID-19 from Europe and China. We discuss potential sex-specific mechanisms modulating the course of disease, such as hormone-regulated expression of genes encoding for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) entry receptors angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 receptor and TMPRSS2 as well as sex hormone-driven innate and adaptive immune responses and immunoaging. Finally, we elucidate the impact of gender-specific lifestyle, health behavior, psychological stress, and socioeconomic conditions on COVID-19 and discuss sex specific aspects of antiviral therapies. The sex and gender disparities observed in COVID-19 vulnerability emphasize the need to better understand the impact of sex and gender on incidence and case fatality of the disease and to tailor treatment according to sex and gender. The ongoing and planned prophylactic and therapeutic treatment studies must include prospective sex- and gender-sensitive analyses.
TL;DR: This Review demonstrates the breadth of questions that are being addressed by Pool-seq but also discusses its limitations and provides guidelines for users.
Abstract: The analysis of polymorphism data is becoming increasingly important as a complementary tool to classical genetic analyses. Nevertheless, despite plunging sequencing costs, genomic sequencing of individuals at the population scale is still restricted to a few model species. Whole-genome sequencing of pools of individuals (Pool-seq) provides a cost-effective alternative to sequencing individuals separately. With the availability of custom-tailored software tools, Pool-seq is being increasingly used for population genomic research on both model and non-model organisms. In this Review, we not only demonstrate the breadth of questions that are being addressed by Pool-seq but also discuss its limitations and provide guidelines for users.
TL;DR: The genome provides a global insight into the molecular architecture and host interaction of this complex metazoan pathogen, revealing that it can exploit host nutrients, neuroendocrine hormones and signalling pathways for growth, development and maturation.
Abstract: Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis, which is a significant cause of morbidity in China and the Philippines. Here we present a draft genomic sequence for the worm. The genome provides a global insight into the molecular architecture and host interaction of this complex metazoan pathogen, revealing that it can exploit host nutrients, neuroendocrine hormones and signalling pathways for growth, development and maturation. Having a complex nervous system and a well-developed sensory system, S. japonicum can accept stimulation of the corresponding ligands as a physiological response to different environments, such as fresh water or the tissues of its intermediate and mammalian hosts. Numerous proteases, including cercarial elastase, are implicated in mammalian skin penetration and haemoglobin degradation. The genomic information will serve as a valuable platform to facilitate development of new interventions for schistosomiasis control.