Henry T. Y. Yang
Bio: Henry T. Y. Yang is an academic researcher from University of California, Santa Barbara. The author has contributed to research in topics: Structural health monitoring & Indentation. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 23 publications receiving 596 citations. Previous affiliations of Henry T. Y. Yang include Purdue University & University of Hawaii at Manoa.
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the literature on curved shell finite elements can be found in this article, where the first two present authors and Liaw presented a survey of such literature in 1990 in this journal.
Abstract: Since the mid-1960s when the forms of curved shell finite elements were originated, including those pioneered by Professor Gallagher, the published literature on the subject has grown extensively. The first two present authors and Liaw presented a survey of such literature in 1990 in this journal. Professor Gallagher maintained an active interest in this subject during his entire academic career, publishing milestone research works and providing periodic reviews of the literature. In this paper, we endeavor to summarize the important literature on shell finite elements over the past 15 years. It is hoped that this will be a befitting tribute to the pioneering achievements and sustained legacy of our beloved Professor Gallagher in the area of shell finite elements. This survey includes: the degenerated shell approach; stress-resultant-based formulations and Cosserat surface approach; reduced integration with stabilization; incompatible modes approach; enhanced strain formulations; 3-D elasticity elements; drilling d.o.f. elements; co-rotational approach; and higher-order theories for composites. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
TL;DR: In the human clinical trials, reasonable and consistent values were obtained, suggesting the Osteoprobe® is capable of measuring Bone Material Strength in vivo, but larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of the instrument's use in medical diagnosis.
Abstract: A novel, hand-held Reference Point Indentation (RPI) instrument, measures how well the bone of living patients and large animals resists indentation. The results presented here are reported in terms of Bone Material Strength, which is a normalized measure of how well the bone resists indentation, and is inversely related to the indentation distance into the bone. We present examples of the instrument's use in: (1) laboratory experiments on bone, including experiments through a layer of soft tissue, (2) three human clinical trials, two ongoing in Barcelona and at the Mayo Clinic, and one completed in Portland, OR, and (3) two ongoing horse clinical trials, one at Purdue University and another at Alamo Pintado Stables in California. The instrument is capable of measuring consistent values when testing through soft tissue such as skin and periosteum, and does so handheld, an improvement over previous Reference Point Indentation instruments. Measurements conducted on horses showed reproducible results when testing the horse through tissue or on bare bone. In the human clinical trials, reasonable and consistent values were obtained, suggesting the Osteoprobe® is capable of measuring Bone Material Strength in vivo, but larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of the instrument's use in medical diagnosis.
TL;DR: In this article, a finite-element procedure was developed for the analysis of induction heat treatment problems involving nonisothermal phase changes, which can be used as a powerful design tool for linking induction heat treating parameters with the mechanical property attributes of the heat treated component.
Abstract: An efficient finite-element procedure has been developed for the analysis of induction heat treatment problems involving nonisothermal phase changes. The finite-element procedure first simulates the magnetic field developed when currents flow through an induction coil by solving Maxwell’s electromagnetic field equations; at the following step, it calculates the temperature distribution in the workpiece due to eddy currents induced by the magnetic field. The final stage of the simulation involves the determination of the distributions of residual stress, hardness, and microstructure in the workpiece. The finite-element analysis includes temperature-dependent material properties, changes in permeability of the workpiece at the Curie temperature, a mixed hardening rule to describe the material constitutive model, and the incorporation of time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. The procedure was applied to the simulation of the induction hardening of 1080 steel bar. Firstly, the magnetic field and temperatures developed in the workpiece during (a) the induction heating of an infinitely long 1080 steel cylinder by a single encircling coil and (b) the induction heating of a semi-infinite half-space by a single coil suspended above it were calculated using the finite-element procedures. These were validated by comparing them with analytical solutions derived for these configurations using a Green’s function method. Finally, to demonstrate the predictive capability and practical applicability of the current finite-element procedure, two examples pertaining to the induction heat treatment of an infinite 1080 steel bar of square cross section and a notched finite 1080 steel cylinder of circular cross section were analyzed to predict the magnetic field, temperature, and residual stress distributions. The current finite-element procedure could be used as a powerful design tool for linking induction heat treating parameters with the mechanical property attributes of the heat treated component.
TL;DR: Cheng et al. as mentioned in this paper presented a method for determining the stress-strain relationship of a material from hardness values H obtained from cone indentation tests with various apical angles.
Abstract: A method for determining the stress–strain relationship of a material from hardness values H obtained from cone indentation tests with various apical angles is presented. The materials studied were assumed to exhibit power-law hardening. As a result, the properties of importance are the Young's modulus E , yield strength Y , and the work-hardening exponent n . Previous work [W.C. Oliver and G.M. Pharr, J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564 (1992)] showed that E can be determined from initial force–displacement data collected while unloading the indenter from the material. Consequently, the properties that need to be determined are Y and n . Dimensional analysis was used to generalize H/E so that it was a function of Y/E and n [Y-T. Cheng and C-M. Cheng, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1284 (1999); Philos. Mag. Lett. 77, 39 (1998)]. A parametric study of Y/E and n was conducted using the finite element method to model material behavior. Regression analysis was used to correlate the H/E findings from the simulations to Y/E and n . With the a priori knowledge of E , this correlation was used to estimate Y and n .
TL;DR: In this paper, a finite element procedure is developed for prediction of deformation field parameters such as effective strain, strain rate, and their variation across the thickness of the chip for various cutting (extrusion) ratios.
Abstract: Large strain extrusion machining (LSEM), a constrained chip formation process, is examined as a method of severe plastic deformation (SPD) at small deformation rates for production of ultra-fine-grained (UFG) materials. A finite element procedure is developed for prediction of deformation field parameters such as effective strain, strain rate, and their variation across the thickness of the chip for various cutting (extrusion) ratios. The cutting force (extrusion pressure) and hydrostatic pressures within the deformation zone are also analyzed. A consideration of the deformation occurring in chip formation suggests bounds on the extrusion ratios that can be realized. Implications of the results for production of bulk chip samples of controlled geometry and with an UFG microstructure are discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, two major figures in adaptive control provide a wealth of material for researchers, practitioners, and students to enhance their work through the information on many new theoretical developments, and can be used by mathematical control theory specialists to adapt their research to practical needs.
Abstract: This book, written by two major figures in adaptive control, provides a wealth of material for researchers, practitioners, and students. While some researchers in adaptive control may note the absence of a particular topic, the book‘s scope represents a high-gain instrument. It can be used by designers of control systems to enhance their work through the information on many new theoretical developments, and can be used by mathematical control theory specialists to adapt their research to practical needs. The book is strongly recommended to anyone interested in adaptive control.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an overview of the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis, followed by a review of some of the recent work on applying these concepts to modeling instrumented indentation measurements.
Abstract: We provide an overview of the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis, followed by a review of some of the recent work on applying these concepts to modeling instrumented indentation measurements. Specifically, we examine conical and pyramidal indentation in elastic-plastic solids with power-law work-hardening, in power-law creep solids, and in linear viscoelastic materials. We show that the scaling approach to indentation modeling provides new insights into several basic questions in instrumented indentation, including, what information is contained in the indentation load-displacement curves? How does hardness depend on the mechanical properties and indenter geometry? What are the factors determining piling-up and sinking-in of surface profiles around indents? Can stress-strain relationships be obtained from indentation load-displacement curves? How to measure time dependent mechanical properties from indentation? How to detect or confirm indentation size effects? The scaling approach also helps organize knowledge and provides a framework for bridging micro- and macroscales. We hope that this review will accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to materials scientists and engineers, and (2) providing a better understanding of instrumented indentation measurements.
TL;DR: Theories and finite elements for multilayered structures have been reviewed in this article, where the authors present an extensive numerical evaluation of available results, along with assessment and benchmarking.
Abstract: This work is a sequel of a previous author’s article: “Theories and Finite Elements for Multilayered. Anisotropic, Composite Plates and Shell”, Archive of Computational Methods in Engineering Vol 9, no 2, 2002; in which a literature overview of available modelings for layered flat and curved structures was given. The two following topics, which were not addressed in the previous work, are detailed in this review: 1. derivation of governing equations and finite element matrices for some of the most relevant plate/shell theories; 2. to present an extensive numerical evaluations of available results, along with assessment and benchmarking. The article content has been divided into four parts. An introduction to this review content is given in Part I. A unified description of several modelings based on displacements and transverse stress assumptions ins given in Part II. The order of the expansion in the thickness directions has been taken as a free parameter. Two-dimensional modelings which include Zig-Zag effects, Interlaminar Continuity as well as Layer-Wise (LW), and Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) description have been addressed. Part III quotes governing equations and FE matrices which have been written in a unified manner by making an extensive use of arrays notations. Governing differential equations of double curved shells and finite element matrices of multilayered plates are considered. Principle of Virtual Displacement (PVD) and Reissner’s Mixed Variational Theorem (RMVT), have been employed as statements to drive variationally consistent conditions, e.g.C 0 -Requirements, on the assumed displacements and stransverse stress fields. The number of the nodes in the element has been taken as a free parameter. As a results both differential governing equations and finite element matrices have been written in terms of a few 3×3 fundamental nuclei which have 9 only terms each. A vast and detailed numerical investigation has been given in Part IV. Performances of available theories and finite elements have been compared by building about 40 tables and 16 figures. More than fifty available theories and finite elements have been compared to those developed in the framework of the unified notation discussed in Parts II and III. Closed form solutions and and finite element results related to bending and vibration of plates and shells have been addressed. Zig-zag effects and interlaminar continuity have been evaluated for a number of problems. Different possibilities to get transverse normal stresses have been compared. LW results have been systematically compared to ESL ones. Detailed evaluations of transverse normal stress effects are given. Exhaustive assessment has been conducted in the Tables 28–39 which compare more than 40 models to evaluate local and global response of layered structures. A final Meyer-Piening problem is used to asses two-dimensional modelings vs local effects description.
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of available theories and finite elements that have been developed for multilayered, anisotropic, composite plate and shell structures is presented. But, although a comprehensive description of several techniques and approaches is given, most of this paper has been devoted to the so called axiomatic theories and related finite element implementations.
Abstract: This work is an overview of available theories and finite elements that have been developed for multilayered, anisotropic, composite plate and shell structures. Although a comprehensive description of several techniques and approaches is given, most of this paper has been devoted to the so called axiomatic theories and related finite element implementations. Most of the theories and finite elements that have been proposed over the last thirty years are in fact based on these types of approaches. The paper has been divided into three parts. Part I, has been devoted to the description of possible approaches to plate and shell structures: 3D approaches, continuum based methods, axiomatic and asymptotic two-dimensional theories, classical and mixed formulations, equivalent single layer and layer wise variable descriptions are considered (the number of the unknown variables is considered to be independent of the number of the constitutive layers in the equivalent single layer case). Complicating effects that have been introduced by anisotropic behavior and layered constructions, such as high transverse deformability, zig-zag effects and interlaminar continuity, have been discussed and summarized by the acronimC -Requirements. Two-dimensional theories have been dealt with in Part II. Contributions based on axiomatic, asymtotic and continuum based approaches have been overviewed. Classical theories and their refinements are first considered. Both case of equivalent single-layer and layer-wise variables descriptions are discussed. The so-called zig-zag theories are then discussed. A complete and detailed overview has been conducted for this type of theory which relies on an approach that is entirely originated and devoted to layered constructions. Formulas and contributions related to the three possible zig-zag approaches, i.e. Lekhnitskii-Ren, Ambartsumian-Whitney-Rath-Das, Reissner-Murakami-Carrera ones have been presented and overviewed, taking into account the findings of a recent historical note provided by the author. Finite Element FE implementations are examined in Part III. The possible developments of finite elements for layered plates and shells are first outlined. FEs based on the theories considered in Part II are discussed along with those approaches which consist of a specific application of finite element techniques, such as hybrid methods and so-called global/local techniques. The extension of finite elements that were originally developed for isotropic one layered structures to multilayerd plates and shells are first discussed. Works based on classical and refined theories as well as on equivalent single layer and layer-wise descriptions have been overviewed. Development of available zig-zag finite elements has been considered for the three cases of zig-zag theories. Finite elements based on other approches are also discussed. Among these, FEs based on asymtotic theories, degenerate continuum approaches, stress resultant methods, asymtotic methods, hierarchy-p,_-s global/local techniques as well as mixed and hybrid formulations have been overviewed.
University of Sheffield1, University of Southampton2, University of Manitoba3, University of Lausanne4, Lyon College5, Laval University6, VU University Medical Center7, Kindai University8, McGill University Health Centre9, Lund University10, Uppsala University Hospital11, Deakin University12, Nara Medical University13, The Chinese University of Hong Kong14, University of Gothenburg15, Erasmus University Medical Center16, Osaka Medical College17
TL;DR: The findings support the use of TBS as a potential adjustment for FRAX probability, though the impact of the adjustment remains to be determined in the context of clinical assessment guidelines.
Abstract: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a grey-level textural index of bone microarchitecture derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. TBS is a BMD-independent predictor of fracture risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether TBS predicted fracture risk independently of FRAX probability and to examine their combined performance by adjusting the FRAX probability for TBS. We utilized individual level data from 17,809 men and women in 14 prospective population-based cohorts. Baseline evaluation included TBS and the FRAX risk variables and outcomes during follow up (mean 6.7 years) comprised major osteoporotic fractures. The association between TBS, FRAX probabilities and the risk of fracture was examined using an extension of the Poisson regression model in each cohort and for each sex and expressed as the gradient of risk (GR; hazard ratio per 1SD change in risk variable in direction of increased risk). FRAX probabilities were adjusted for TBS using an adjustment factor derived from an independent cohort (the Manitoba Bone Density Cohort). Overall, the GR of TBS for major osteoporotic fracture was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.35-1.53) when adjusted for age and time since baseline and was similar in men and women (p > 0.10). When additionally adjusted for FRAX 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture, TBS remained a significant, independent predictor for fracture (GR 1.32, 95%CI: 1.24-1.41). The adjustment of FRAX probability for TBS resulted in a small increase in the GR (1.76, 95%CI: 1.65, 1.87 vs. 1.70, 95%CI: 1.60-1.81). A smaller change in GR for hip fracture was observed (FRAX hip fracture probability GR 2.25 vs. 2.22). TBS is a significant predictor of fracture risk independently of FRAX. The findings support the use of TBS as a potential adjustment for FRAX probability, though the impact of the adjustment remains to be determined in the context of clinical assessment guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.