Author

# Herman Feshbach

Other affiliations: Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Bio: Herman Feshbach is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Scattering & Elastic scattering. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 131 publication(s) receiving 11837 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Herman Feshbach include Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare & Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Topics: Scattering, Elastic scattering, Nucleon, Inelastic scattering, Neutron

##### Papers

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Abstract: A new formulation of the theory of nuclear reactions based on the properties of a generalized “optical” potential is presented. The real and imaginary part of this potential satisfy a dispersion type relation while its poles give rise to resonances in nuclear reactions. A new derivation of the Breit-Wigner formula is given in which the concept of channel radius is not employed. This derivation is extended to the case of overlapping resonances. These results can then be employed to obtain the complex potential well model for pure elastic scattering. This potential well is shown to become real as the average width of the resonances increases. Reactions as well as elastic scattering are treated. Considering the former process in an isolated resonance, we obtain a nonresonant term analogous to the familiar potential scattering term of elastic scattering. This is just the direct interaction term which thus appears automatically in this formalism. Upon performing the appropriate energy averages over resonances, the complex potential well model is generalized so as to include inelastic scattering. The effects of the identity of nucleons is investigated. It is shown that our formalism is valid as long as the exit channels can at most contain one nucleon.

2,058 citations

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Abstract: The effective Hamiltonian method for nuclear reactions described in an earlier paper with the same title, part I, is generalized so as to include all possible reaction types, as well as the effects arising from the identity of particles. The principal device employed, as in part I, is the projection operator which selects the open channel components of the wave function. It is found that the formal structure of part I providing a unified description for direct and compound nuclear reactions including the coupled equation description for direct reactions remains valid in this wider context. A Kapur-Peierls expansion may also be readily obtained. The concept of channel radii is not needed nor is any decomposition of the wave function for the system into angular momentum eigenstates required, so that the expressions for transition amplitudes and widths are invariant with respect to the angular momentum coupling scheme. Since the open channels can only be defined in an asymptotic sense, the corresponding projection operators are not unique. As a consequence the projection operator method has a flexibility which in the first place is consonant with the wide range of phenomena which can occur in nuclear reactions and in the second place can effectively exploit an intuitive understanding of the phenomena. Example of projection operators are obtained including one which leads to the Wigner-Eisenbud formalism, another which is appropriate for the stripping reaction, and, finally, one which takes the Pauli exclusion principle into account. Note that explicit representations of the projection operators are not required for the development of general formal results but are necessary if, eventually, quantitative calculations are made.

1,782 citations

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Abstract: The total cross section and the differential cross section for the inelastic scattering of neutrons are considered. It is assumed that the compound nucleus is sufficiently excited so that the statistical model may be applied. If the statistical model may be applied as well to the residual nucleus, it is shown that the angular distribution of the inelastically scattered neutrons is isotropic. If only a few levels of the target nucleus can be excited, the angular distribution is anisotropic. Tables are provided which permit the calculation of the angular distribution if the incident and emergent neutron angular momenta are less than or equal to $3\ensuremath{\hbar}$. Examples of the evaluation of total cross sections are given, providing examples of the sensitivity of the results to the quantum numbers of the excited state.

1,480 citations

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Abstract: The pion has emerges as the main feature of nuclear structure beyond the traditional description in terms of neutrons and protons. It manifests itself in a number of areas which are normally only loosely interlinked, but intimately related to the pion-nucleon and pion-nuclear interactions: the nucleon-nucleon force; the nuclear many-body problem; nuclear electromagnetic and weak interactions; nuclear spinisospin interactions; pion-nucleus scattering and reactions; etc. This book is a systematic introduction to and survey of nuclear pion physics, a major sub-field of nuclear pion physics. The theoretical foundations are padagogically developed and the physical picture is illustrated with supporting experimental examples.

604 citations

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486 citations

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Abstract: This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical progress concerning many-body phenomena in dilute, ultracold gases. It focuses on effects beyond standard weak-coupling descriptions, such as the Mott-Hubbard transition in optical lattices, strongly interacting gases in one and two dimensions, or lowest-Landau-level physics in quasi-two-dimensional gases in fast rotation. Strong correlations in fermionic gases are discussed in optical lattices or near-Feshbach resonances in the BCS-BEC crossover.

5,845 citations

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Florian Banhart

^{1}, Jani Kotakoski^{2}, Arkady V. Krasheninnikov^{2}, Arkady V. Krasheninnikov^{3}•Institutions (3)TL;DR: In this article, the present knowledge about point and line defects in graphene are reviewed and particular emphasis is put on the unique ability of graphene to reconstruct its lattice around intrinsic defects, leading to interesting effects and potential applications.

Abstract: Graphene is one of the most promising materials in nanotechnology. The electronic and mechanical properties of graphene samples with high perfection of the atomic lattice are outstanding, but structural defects, which may appear during growth or processing, deteriorate the performance of graphene-based devices. However, deviations from perfection can be useful in some applications, as they make it possible to tailor the local properties of graphene and to achieve new functionalities. In this article, the present knowledge about point and line defects in graphene are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on the unique ability of graphene to reconstruct its lattice around intrinsic defects, leading to interesting effects and potential applications. Extrinsic defects such as foreign atoms which are of equally high importance for designing graphene-based devices with dedicated properties are also discussed.

2,465 citations

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Abstract: Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. This includes the theoretical background and models for the description of Feshbach resonances, the experimental methods to find and characterize the resonances, a discussion of the main properties of resonances in various atomic species and mixed atomic species systems, and an overview of key experiments with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold molecules.

2,281 citations

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Abstract: Modern nanotechnology allows one to scale down various important devices (sensors, chips, fibers, etc.) and thus opens up new horizons for their applications. The efficiency of most of them is based on fundamental physical phenomena, such as transport of wave excitations and resonances. Short propagation distances make phase-coherent processes of waves important. Often the scattering of waves involves propagation along different paths and, as a consequence, results in interference phenomena, where constructive interference corresponds to resonant enhancement and destructive interference to resonant suppression of the transmission. Recently, a variety of experimental and theoretical work has revealed such patterns in different physical settings. The purpose of this review is to relate resonant scattering to Fano resonances, known from atomic physics. One of the main features of the Fano resonance is its asymmetric line profile. The asymmetry originates from a close coexistence of resonant transmission and resonant reflection and can be reduced to the interaction of a discrete (localized) state with a continuum of propagation modes. The basic concepts of Fano resonances are introduced, their geometrical and/or dynamical origin are explained, and theoretical and experimental studies of light propagation in photonic devices, charge transport through quantum dots, plasmon scattering in Josephson-junction networks, and matter-wave scattering in ultracold atom systems, among others are reviewed.

2,219 citations