Hermania Em Wogo
Bio: Hermania Em Wogo is an academic researcher from University of Nusa Cendana. The author has contributed to research in topics: Transesterification & Chitosan. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 11 publications receiving 17 citations.
TL;DR: This article focuses on providing the chemical reaction paths of isolation fatty acid and synthesis of monoglyceride from vegetable oils.
Abstract: Fatty acid and monoglyceride are examples of lipid compounds that can be founded in vegetable oils. The fatty acid has an important role in the human diet, lubricants, detergents, cosmetics, plastics, coatings, and resin. Monoglyceride has a wide function in the food industry in particular as natural emulsifier, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, antioxidant, and antibacterial. Therefore, isolation and preparation of fatty acid and monoglyceride are the crucial step. This article focuses on providing the chemical reaction paths of isolation fatty acid and synthesis of monoglyceride from vegetable oils. Fatty acids could be isolated by Colgate-Emery steam hydrolysis, hydrolysis of vegetable oils using inorganic base catalyst or lipase, and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure fatty acid methyl ester. There are three steps in the synthesis of pure fatty acid methyl ester which are neutralization, transesterification, and fractional distillation. There are four reactions paths in preparing monoglyceride from vegetable oils. They are glycerolysis, ethanolysis using lipase enzyme (sn-1,3), esterification of fatty acid with glycerol in the presence of inorganic acid catalyst or lipase, transesterification of fatty acid methyl ester with glycerol, transesterification of fatty acid methyl ester with protected glycerol (1,2-O-isopropylidene glycerol), and deprotection using an acid resin (Amberlyst-15).
TL;DR: In this article, the structure of sterigmatocystin and pestalopyrone were elucidated using mass, UV and NMR spectrometers together with the comparison with the literature data.
Abstract: Mangrove forest has a distinctive habitat adapting with marine and terrestrial environment. Chemical investigation of the extract from mangrove endophytic fungi Nigrospora oryzae had resulted in the isolation of sterigmatocystin ( 1 ) and pestalopyrone ( 2 ). The structure of sterigmatocystin ( 1 ) and pestalopyrone ( 2 ) were elucidated using mass, UV and NMR spectrometers together with the comparison with the literature data. The study also showed that sterigmatocystin displayed moderate cytotoxicity but it could be further developed as antiviral and antibacterial agent based on the SAR information reported from its analogue and derivatives.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors reviewed some reaction stages to the preparation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil, and the most effective technique was the hydrolysis through the use of the enzyme lipozyme TL IM.
Abstract: Castor oil is a vegetable product extracted from Ricinus communis L (castor seed), which is primarily considered an important commercial value for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, coatings, etc. It is rich in hydroxylated fatty acids (ricinoleic acid, 89-92%) and is widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, oleochemical, and agricultural industries. This oil has also been confirmed as a bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, and antiherpetic agents, due to the ricinoleic acid having functional groups, such as -COOH, -OH, and -C=C-. Furthermore, it is converted into various acid derivative compounds with several applications. Therefore, this article reviewed some reaction stages to the preparation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil. Several methods or reaction pathways were employed in the preparation procedure, such as the Twitchell and Colgate-Emery processes, as well as the alkaline catalyzed, transesterification with methyl ricinoleic, and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis, respectively. Although each of these preparation methods has advantages and disadvantages, the most effective technique was the hydrolysis through the use of the enzyme lipozyme TL IM. Besides being a green method, the conversion rate in the hydrolysis process was 96.2 ± 1.5.
18 Oct 2016
TL;DR: In this article, penelitian tentang sintesis silika gel terimobilisasi dithizon dari abu sekam padi (yang digunakan sebagai bahan adsorben).
Abstract: Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sintesis silika gel terimobilisasi dithizon dari abu sekam padi (yang digunakan sebagai bahan adsorben). Kajian yang dilakukan meliputi sintesis dan karakterisasi silika terimobilisasi dithizon. Metode yang digunakan ialah metode sol-gel. Karakterisasi silika gel dilakukan dengan spektrofotometer inframerah (FTIR), difraktometer sinar-X (XRD), dan penganalisis luas permukaan (SAA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa silika terimobilisasi dithizon berhasil dibuat yang ditunjukkan oleh munculnya serapan inframerah dari gugus fungsional –NH, C=N, C-N, -SH, C=S. Data XRD menunjukkan bahwa struktur silika terimobilisasi dithizon bersifat amorf. Hasil SAA menunjukkan bahwa penambahan dithizon menurunkan luas permukaan spesifik silika kecuali untuk penambahan dithizon 2 gram. Kata kunci : silika gel, imobilisasi, dithizon, sekam padi, sol-gel
01 Sep 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the essential oil of C. nardus was obtained from the hydro-distillation of the dried leaves and further analyzed its chemical composition and its antibacterial activity.
Abstract: Cymbopogon nardus was one of the aromatic plants that commonly found growing in dry land of Timor. It was well known as producer of citronella oil that has been widely use in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry. In this study, the essential oil of C. nardus was obtained from the hydro-distillation of the dried leaves. The essential oil was further analysed its chemical composition and its antibacterial activity. GC-MS spectra showed high content of trans-geraniol about 63.73% followed by β-citronellol (8.67%), δ-cadinene (7.31%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.41%). The essential oil of C. nardus strongly inhibited the growth of Staphyloccus aureus and Escherechia coli with diameter of zone inhibition were observed at 20.7 and 21.9 mm, respectively. This is the first report of the highest content of geraniol from essential oil of C. nardus.
TL;DR: The preliminary antibacterial assay shows that the 1-monolinolein did not give any antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while 2-monoolein showed weak antib bacterial activity againstStaphylitis aureUS.
Abstract: In the present work, linoleic acid and oleic acid were isolated from Indonesian corn oil and palm oil and they were used to prepare monoacylglycerol derivatives as the antibacterial agent. Indonesian corn oil contains 57.74% linoleic acid, 19.88% palmitic acid, 11.84% oleic acid and 3.02% stearic acid. While Indonesian palm oil contains 44.72% oleic acid, 39.28% palmitic acid, 4.56% stearic acid and 1.54% myristic acid. The oleic acid was purified by using Urea Inclusion Complex (UIC) method and its purity was significantly increased from 44.72% to 94.71%. Meanwhile, with the UIC method, the purity of ethyl linoleate was increased from 57.74% to 72.14%. 1-Monolinolein and 2-monoolein compounds were synthesized via two-step process from the isolated linoleic acid and oleic acid, respectively. The preliminary antibacterial assay shows that the 1-monolinolein did not give any antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while 2-monoolein showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
TL;DR: In this article , a matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is used for lipid analysis and it is shown that a combination of MALDI MS with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) enables a fast spatially resolved screening of an entire TLC plate.
Abstract: Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is an indispensable tool in modern lipid research since it is fast, sensitive, tolerates sample impurities and provides spectra without major analyte fragmentation. We will discuss some methodological aspects, the related ion-forming processes and the MALDI MS characteristics of the different lipid classes (with the focus on glycerophospholipids) and the progress, which was achieved during the last ten years. Particular attention will be given to quantitative aspects of MALDI MS since this is widely considered as the most serious drawback of the method. Although the detailed role of the matrix is not yet completely understood, it will be explicitly shown that the careful choice of the matrix is crucial (besides the careful evaluation of the positive and negative ion mass spectra) in order to be able to detect all lipid classes of interest. Two developments will be highlighted: spatially resolved Imaging MS is nowadays well established and the distribution of lipids in tissues merits increasing interest because lipids are readily detectable and represent ubiquitous compounds. It will also be shown that a combination of MALDI MS with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) enables a fast spatially resolved screening of an entire TLC plate which makes the method competitive with LC/MS.
TL;DR: Lauric acid and monolaurin have a strong ability to destroy gram positive bacteria, especially S. aureus, fungi such as C. Albicans, and viruses including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and visna virus (VV) as discussed by the authors .
Abstract: Virgin coconut oil is obtained by wet processing of coconut milk using fermentation, centrifugation, enzymatic extraction, and the microwave heating method. Presently, VCO has several positive effects and benefits to human health, hence, it is regularly consumed and widely known as a unique functional food. VCO contains lauric acid (45 to 52 %). By lipase in the digestive system, VCO can undergo a breakdown into lauric acid, 1-monolaurin, and 2-monolaurin. These components have both hydrophilic and lipophilic groups and are also recognized as excellent antimicrobial lipids. Furthermore, lauric acid and monolaurin can be used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral with broad-spectrum inhibition. Lauric acid and monolaurin have a strong ability to destroy gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus, fungi such as C. Albicans, and viruses including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and visna virus (VV). Lauric acid and monolaurin interact with certain functional groups located in the cell membrane and can cause damage to the cell. In general, the potential of VCO as healthy food is contributed by lauric acid and monolaurin which are antimicrobial agents.
09 Jun 2020
TL;DR: The aim of this review article is to provide up to date information of critical health-promoting properties of microbial and/or marine-derived molecules and their use in blue-based biotechnology with a focus on food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical/biomedical applications.
Abstract: Surface active agents are characterized for their capacity to adsorb to fluid and solid-water interfaces. They can be classified as surfactants and emulsifiers based on their molecular weight (MW) and properties. Over the years, the chemical surfactant industry has been rapidly increasing to meet consumer demands. Consequently, such a boost has led to the search for more sustainable and biodegradable alternatives, as chemical surfactants are non-biodegradable, thus causing an adverse effect on the environment. To these ends, many microbial and/or marine-derived molecules have been shown to possess various biological properties that could allow manufacturers to make additional health-promoting claims for their products. Our aim, in this review article, is to provide up to date information of critical health-promoting properties of these molecules and their use in blue-based biotechnology (i.e., biotechnology using aquatic organisms) with a focus on food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical/biomedical applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discussed the possibility of producing MAGs and DAGs from microalgae lipids, which can be used to produce high-value bioproducts from an economic point of view.
Abstract: Background Monoglycerides (MAG) and Diglycerides (DAG) belong to the category of naturally-occurring glycerolipids. They have wide applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, with commercial demand supplied by the consolidated industrial catalytic route of vegetable oil glycerolysis. Despite the economic competitiveness of producing these types of emulsifiers from vegetable oils, the increasing demand for products with high nutrition value makes some kinds of microalgae oil potential feedstock of high-quality fatty acids to serve this growing market. Scope and approach An alternative to the use of vegetable oils is the production of triacylglycerols from microalgae. Usually, microalgal oils have a high content of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) and the cultivation of microalgae may present fewer environmental impacts, considering reduced use of arable land, efficient CO2 biofixation, and high productivity. Microalgae lipids are mostly studied for biodiesel production, but this work shows the potential to explore more valuable applications due to their composition, discussing the possibility of producing MAGs and DAGs from microalgae lipids. Key findings and conclusions While biodiesel B99-B100 costs USD3.56/gallon according to the U.S. Energy Dept. (April 2021), a food emulsifier (soybean lecithin) is sold for USD147/kg (Alfa Aesar, August 2021). Hence, it is imperative to consider high-value bioproducts from an economic point of view. Microalgal oil can be rich in ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, being a promising source of MAGs and DAGs with higher nutritional value. Glycerolysis studies of this feedstock are restricted to the enzymatic route, but different alternatives are shown in this work.