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Hermann Diebel-Fischer

Bio: Hermann Diebel-Fischer is an academic researcher from Dresden University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Epistemology & Sociology. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 3 citations.

Papers
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors outline different readings of the term research ethics and present the approach of integrated research ethics, which steps beyond an understanding of research ethics as applied ethics and calls for the development of ethics frameworks not within the classical structures, but organized in a post-departmental interdisciplinary structure.
Abstract: This paper outlines different readings of the term research ethics and presents the approach of integrated research ethics. This approach steps beyond an understanding of research ethics as applied ethics and calls for the development of ethics frameworks not within the classical structures, i.e. in theology or philosophy departments, but organized in a post-departmental interdisciplinary structure.

5 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2022
TL;DR: The notion of an assemblage as a collection of potentially heterogeneous elements that, despite displaying consistency, remains malleable through reorganization, interconnection and, (re- )attribution forms the ontological basis that guides a conceptual approach to thinking in between the extremes of technological determinism and social constructivism as mentioned in this paper .
Abstract: Adding ethics courses to engineering curricula seeks to equip students with the critical mindset that enables careers committed to serving humanity. Yet, the knowledge of ethical theories is neither a necessary, let alone sufficient condition for being good [1]. There is no automatism that translates ethical knowledge into action, overriding attitudes that were developed during the enculturation of a student. However, we deem teaching assemblage theory a promising means to achieve a sustained commitment to responsible innovation practice. We base our argument on assemblage theory’s (cf. [2, 3]) capacity to conceptualize the interplay of human actors and technological artefacts in terms of dynamic evolutionary systems. The notion of an assemblage as a collection of potentially heterogeneous elements that—despite displaying consistency—remains malleable through reorganization, interconnection and, (re- )attribution forms the ontological basis that guides a conceptual approach to thinking in-between the extremes of technological determinism and social constructivism. Information algorithms, e.g., can be regarded as having the power to facilitate ethical action as part of a larger assemblage [4] and artificial intelligence can arguably only be understood as “trustworthy” within sociotechnological systems in which a shared responsibility realizes both epistemic and moral conditions for trust [5]. Ultimately, we intend engineering students to realize the extent of their influence on the world and, therefore, their responsibility for contributing to a prosperous community. Thus, ethics is not only taught by conveying its classical normative theories but rather explored by discovering the entangledness of technology and society.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study in mice suggests that ES cells might be generated using a single-cell biopsy technique similar to that used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to create new stem cell lines without destroying embryos.
Abstract: At present it is necessary to destroy embryos ex utero to obtain human embryonic stem (hES) cells, but a study in mice suggests that ES cells might be generated using a single-cell biopsy technique similar to that used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This will not interfere with the developmental potential of the embryo. Overnight growth of a single blastomere could yield cells that may be used for both genetic testing and stem cell production without altering the clinical outcome. The investigators carried out ten experiments which, collectively, showed that hES cells can be derived from single blastomeres. Starting with unused embryos produced by in vitro fertilization, 19 ES-cell-like outgrowths and two stable hES cell lines were obtained. A majority of isolated blastomeres divided at least once, and about half formed vesicles or clumps that produced outgrowths within 2 days. The cells remained able to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers (primitive endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm) in vitro and also in teratomas. Among the outcomes observed over several days were three that are typical when ES cells are derived from human embryos. Cells resembling trophectoderm dominated some cultures. Secondly, cells that initially resembled ES cells differentiated within cultures. Finally, ES-cell-like cells continued to proliferate without differentiating. Some hES cell lines proliferated without differentiating for longer than 8 months. Both karyotypes and the expression of markers of pluripotency were normal. The ability to create new stem cell lines without destroying embryos addresses the ethical concerns shared by many interested individuals. Potentially, matched tissues can be generated for children and siblings born from transferred PGD embryos. Further studies will be needed to learn whether blastomere-derived hES cell lines resemble conventional hES cell lines in their ability to form functional differentiated cell types. The investigators recommend that, until safety issues are resolved, this procedure be used only in the context of PGD.

129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ongoing developments in the area of AI/AS are critically evaluated and related advantages and serious concerns of the society are discussed.
Abstract: The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and automated systems (AS) demonstrate excellent outcomes in various sectors of industrial units to replace the human from jobs. However, the competitive world with evolutions, advancement of technologies and thrive for success by industrial gains by the managements are leaving the interests and benefits of larger number of human beings in the society. In this paper, various ethical issues related with the implementation of AI/AS are demonstrated with different perspectives. The ongoing developments in the area of AI/AS are critically evaluated and related advantages and serious concerns of the society are discussed. Various global initiatives and legal amendments across the globe to limit the excessive usage of AI/AS are being examined with critical assessments.

3 citations

Posted ContentDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a taxonomy of the ethical challenges faced by researchers in the field of Computational Social Science (CSS) is provided, along with practical guardrails within the research activities and environments of CSS in response to these dilemmas.
Abstract: As a quintessential social impact science, Computational Social Science (CSS) holds great promise to advance social justice, human flourishing, and biospheric sustainability. However, CSS is also an all-too-human science—conceived in particular social, cultural, and historical contexts and pursued amidst intractable power imbalances, structural inequities, and potential conflicts of interest. Its proponents must thus remain continuously self-critical about the role that values, interests, and power dynamics play in shaping mission-driven research. Likewise, they must take heed of the complicated social and historical conditions surrounding the generation and construction of data as well as the way that the activities and theories of CSS researchers can function to restructure and shape the phenomena that they purport only to measure and analyse. This article is concerned with setting up practical guardrails within the research activities and environments of CSS in response to these dilemmas. It aims to provide CSS scholars, as well as policymakers and other stakeholders who apply CSS methods, with the critical and constructive means needed to ensure that their practices are ethical, trustworthy, and responsible. It begins by providing a taxonomy of the ethical challenges faced by researchers in the field of CSS. These are challenges related to (1) the treatment of research subjects, (2) the impacts of CSS research on affected individuals and communities, (3) the quality of CSS research and to its epistemological status, (4) research integrity, and (5) research equity. Taking these challenges as a motivation for cultural transformation, it then argues for the end-to-end incorporation of habits of responsible research and innovation (RRI) into CSS practices, focusing on the role that contextual considerations, anticipatory reflection, impact assessment, public engagement, and justifiable and well-documented action should play across the research lifecycle. In proposing the inclusion of habits of RRI in CSS practices, the chapter lays out several practical steps needed for ethical, trustworthy, and responsible CSS research activities. These include stakeholder engagement processes, research impact assessments, data lifecycle documentation, bias self-assessments, and transparent research reporting protocols. INTRODUCTION: COMBATTING THE LURES OF SCIENTISM IN CSS ............................................ 2 ETHICAL CHALLENGES FACED BY CSS ................................................................................................. 5 CHALLENGES RELATED TO THE TREATMENT OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS. ........................................................................... 6 CHALLENGES RELATED TO THE IMPACTS OF CSS RESEARCH ON AFFECTED INDIVIDUALS AND COMMUNITIES ..... 9 Adverse impacts at the individual level ..................................................................................................................................... 10 Adverse impacts at the social level ............................................................................................................................................ 11 Adverse impacts at the biospheric level ..................................................................................................................................... 12 CHALLENGES RELATED TO THE QUALITY OF CSS RESEARCH AND TO ITS EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS ................... 13 CHALLENGES RELATED TO RESEARCH INTEGRITY ........................................................................................................... 16 CHALLENGES RELATED TO RESEARCH EQUITY .................................................................................................................. 17 INCORPORATING HABITS OF RESPONSIBLE RESEARCH AND INNOVATION INTO CSS PRACTICES ................................................................................................................................................... 18 CONSIDER CONTEXT ............................................................................................................................................................... 19 ANTICIPATE IMPACTS .............................................................................................................................................................. 20 Stakeholder analysis ................................................................................................................................................................ 21 Establishment of clear normative criteria for impact assessment ................................................................................................. 22 Methodical evaluation of potential impacts and impact mitigation planning ............................................................................... 23 Establishment of protocols for re-visitation and re-evaluation of the research impact assessment .................................................. 26 * This paper is an unabridged pre-print of a chapter written for the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, Scientific Development Centre for Advanced Studies, to be published in Handbook of Computational Social Science for Policy (2022) by Springer. In addition to the JRC’s support, the author would like to acknowledge the support of a grant from ESRC (ES/T007354/1), Wave 1 of The UKRI Strategic Priorities Fund under the EPSRC Grant EP/W006022/1, Towards Turing 2.0 under the EPSRC Grant EP/W037211/1, and the public funds that make the Turing's Public Policy Programme possible. The author would additionally like to thank Serena Signorelli, Claudia Fischer, and Morgan Briggs for their invaluable editorial assistance.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 2022-AM
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examine transdisciplinary and transtechnological coordinates of art and humanities taking the case study of cryptoart and blockchain system usage in contemporary artistic practices.
Abstract: Contemporary times always pose a challenge for theoreticians who try to map it and encode it. Nevertheless, it is more than important to grapple with present times and bring out the topics that can engage understanding of present discourses, potentials, and possibilities. It is even more true with art and humanities that, each on its side, faced significant challenges from the rise of technology-driven reality. As for the art, it seems that technology gives more opportunities and options than ever, but it is not without questions of value, authenticity, ownership, commodification, or artivist practices. As for the humanities, they already faced the alleged “crisis” due to the new wave of technocracy. New technology offers new media, new languages, and new discourses. But is it all good news? Should art and humanities form a kind of a (trans)tactical (im)pact and adopt the technology language, or would such a turn create more slippery points than easy-going practices? This paper will try to examine transdisciplinary and transtechnological coordinates of art and humanities taking the case study of cryptoart and blockchain system usage in contemporary artistic practices. This will also engage the discussion about digital humanities, which might be one of the next transdisciplinary steps to continue the fierce line of experimentation, and to combat the trend of going back to disciplinary frameworks. Article received: December 18, 2021; Article accepted: February 1, 2022; Published online: April 15, 2022; Original scholarly article