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Hermann M. Fritz

Bio: Hermann M. Fritz is an academic researcher from Georgia Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Landslide & Storm surge. The author has an hindex of 38, co-authored 123 publications receiving 4947 citations. Previous affiliations of Hermann M. Fritz include École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne & Northwestern University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, landslide generated impulse waves were investigated in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity, and four wave types were determined: weakly nonlinear oscillatory wave, nonlinear transition wave, solitary-like wave and dissipative transient bore.
Abstract: Landslide generated impulse waves were investigated in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity. The recorded wave profiles were extremely unsteady and nonlinear. Four wave types were determined: weakly nonlinear oscillatory wave, non-linear transition wave, solitary-like wave and dissipative transient bore. Most of the generated impulse waves were located in the intermediate water depth wave regime. Nevertheless the propagation velocity of the leading wave crest closely followed the theoretical approximations for a solitary wave. Between 4 and 50% of the kinetic slide impact energy propagated outward in the impulse wave train. The applicability ranges of the classical nonlinear wave theories to landslide generated impulse waves were determined. The main wave characteristics were related to the landslide parameters driving the entire wave generation process. The slide Froude number was identified as the dominant parameter. The physical model results were compared to the giant rockslide generated impulse wave which struck the shores of the Lituya Bay, Alaska, in 1958.

298 citations

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TL;DR: On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw = 88 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds.
Abstract: On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw = 88 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile’s Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuin and the Pacific Islands of Santa Maria, Mocha, Juan Fernandez Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter) The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitucion The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared

272 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jun 2005-Science
TL;DR: The conclusion stresses the importance of education: Residents with a basic knowledge of tsunamis, as well as an understanding of how environmental modifications will affect overland flow, are paramount to saving lives and minimizing tsunami destruction.
Abstract: In response to the 26 December 2004 tsunami, a survey team of scientists was dispatched to Sri Lanka. Measurements made by the team show that the tsunami elevation and runup ranged from 5 to 12 meters. Eyewitnesses report that up to three separate waves attacked the coast, with the second or third generally the largest. Our conclusion stresses the importance of education: Residents with a basic knowledge of tsunamis, as well as an understanding of how environmental modifications will affect overland flow, are paramount to saving lives and minimizing tsunami destruction.

263 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a vehicle-based survey was complemented by inspections with the reconnaissance boat along the Gulf Coast and the Mississippi Barrier Islands, showing that the lower floors of specially designed buildings were damaged by the surge of seawater and associated wave action.
Abstract: Hurricane Katrina (23–30 August 2005) struck low-lying coastal plains particularly vulnerable to storm surge flooding. Maximum storm surges, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured along the Gulf Coast of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The vehicle based survey was complemented by inspections with the reconnaissance boat along the Gulf Coast and the Mississippi Barrier Islands. The storm surge peaked to the East of Katrina’s path exceeding 10 meters in several locations along the Mississippi coastline. The storm surge measurements show that the lower floors of specially designed buildings were damaged by the surge of seawater and associated wave action, while the upper floors sustained minimal wind damage. Furthermore, the storm surge measurements along New Orleans’s Lake shore indicate that the 17th Street Canal levee failed prior to overtopping. The land loss on the barrier islands resulted in an increased vulnerability of the US Gulf Coast to future hurricane storm surges.

229 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: On July 10, 1958, an earthquake Mw 8.3 along the Fairweather fault triggered a major subaerial landslide into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay on the southern coast of Alaska. The landslide impacted the water at high speed generating a giant tsunami and the highest wave runup in recorded history. The megatsunami runup to an elevation of 524 m caused total forest destruction and erosion down to bedrock on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. A cross section of Gilbert Inlet was rebuilt at 1∶675 scale in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity. A pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was used to generate a high-speed granular slide with controlled impact characteristics. State-of-the-art laser measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser distance sensors (LDS) were applied to the decisive initial phase with landslide impact and wave generation as well as the runup on the headland. PIV provided instantaneous velocity vector fields in a large area of interest and gave insight into kinematics of wave generation and runup. The entire process of a high-speed granular landslide impact may be subdivided into two main stages: (a) Landslide impact and penetration with flow separation, cavity formation and wave generation, and (b) air cavity collapse with landslide run-out and debris detrainment causing massive phase mixing. Formation of a large air cavity — similar to an asteroid impact — in the back of the landslide is highlighted. A three-dimensional pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was designed, constructed and successfully deployed in the tsunami wave basin at OSU. The Lituya Bay landslide was reproduced in a three-dimensional physical model at 1∶400 scale. The landslide surface velocities distribution was measured with PIV. The measured tsunami amplitude and runup heights serve as benchmark for analytical and numerical models.

194 citations


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TL;DR: In this paper, the main ecological services across a variety of estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) including marshes, mangroves, nearshore coral reefs, seagrass beds, and sand beaches and dunes are reviewed.
Abstract: The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) is affecting a number of critical benefits, or ecosystem services. We review the main ecological services across a variety of ECEs, including marshes, mangroves, nearshore coral reefs, seagrass beds, and sand beaches and dunes. Where possible, we indicate estimates of the key economic values arising from these services, and discuss how the natural variability of ECEs impacts their benefits, the synergistic relationships of ECEs across seascapes, and management implications. Although reliable valuation estimates are beginning to emerge for the key services of some ECEs, such as coral reefs, salt marshes, and mangroves, many of the important benefits of seagrass beds and sand dunes and beaches have not been assessed properly. Even for coral reefs, marshes, and mangroves, important ecological services have yet to be valued reliably, such as cross-ecosystem nutrient transfer (coral reefs), erosion control (marshes), and pollution control (mangroves). An important issue for valuing certain ECE services, such as coastal protection and habitat-fishery linkages, is that the ecological functions underlying these services vary spatially and temporally. Allowing for the connectivity between ECE habitats also may have important implications for assessing the ecological functions underlying key ecosystems services, such coastal protection, control of erosion, and habitat-fishery linkages. Finally, we conclude by suggesting an action plan for protecting and/or enhancing the immediate and longer-term values of ECE services. Because the connectivity of ECEs across land-sea gradients also influences the provision of certain ecosystem services, management of the entire seascape will be necessary to preserve such synergistic effects. Other key elements of an action plan include further ecological and economic collaborative research on valuing ECE services, improving institutional and legal frameworks for management, controlling and regulating destructive economic activities, and developing ecological restoration options.

3,750 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To the best of our knowledge, there is only one application of mathematical modelling to face recognition as mentioned in this paper, and it is a face recognition problem that scarcely clamoured for attention before the computer age but, having surfaced, has attracted the attention of some fine minds.
Abstract: to be done in this area. Face recognition is a problem that scarcely clamoured for attention before the computer age but, having surfaced, has involved a wide range of techniques and has attracted the attention of some fine minds (David Mumford was a Fields Medallist in 1974). This singular application of mathematical modelling to a messy applied problem of obvious utility and importance but with no unique solution is a pretty one to share with students: perhaps, returning to the source of our opening quotation, we may invert Duncan's earlier observation, 'There is an art to find the mind's construction in the face!'.

3,015 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Aug 2005-Science
TL;DR: Social and ecological vulnerability to disasters and outcomes of any particular extreme event are influenced by buildup or erosion of resilience both before and after disasters occur.
Abstract: Social and ecological vulnerability to disasters and outcomes of any particular extreme event are influenced by buildup or erosion of resilience both before and after disasters occur. Resilient social-ecological systems incorporate diverse mechanisms for living with, and learning from, change and unexpected shocks. Disaster management requires multilevel governance systems that can enhance the capacity to cope with uncertainty and surprise by mobilizing diverse sources of resilience.

2,277 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the evidence so far, it is argued that certain events or an increase in their frequency can be linked with confidence to the human influence on climate.
Abstract: It has been widely debated whether recent extreme weather events are related to global warming. Now, from a review of the evidence so far, it is argued that certain events or an increase in their frequency can be linked with confidence to the human influence on climate.

1,772 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Masroor Hussain1, Dongmei Chen1, Angela Cheng1, Hui Wei, David Stanley 
TL;DR: This paper begins with a discussion of the traditionally pixel-based and (mostly) statistics-oriented change detection techniques which focus mainly on the spectral values and mostly ignore the spatial context, followed by a review of object-basedchange detection techniques.
Abstract: The appetite for up-to-date information about earth’s surface is ever increasing, as such information provides a base for a large number of applications, including local, regional and global resources monitoring, land-cover and land-use change monitoring, and environmental studies. The data from remote sensing satellites provide opportunities to acquire information about land at varying resolutions and has been widely used for change detection studies. A large number of change detection methodologies and techniques, utilizing remotely sensed data, have been developed, and newer techniques are still emerging. This paper begins with a discussion of the traditionally pixel-based and (mostly) statistics-oriented change detection techniques which focus mainly on the spectral values and mostly ignore the spatial context. This is succeeded by a review of object-based change detection techniques. Finally there is a brief discussion of spatial data mining techniques in image processing and change detection from remote sensing data. The merits and issues of different techniques are compared. The importance of the exponential increase in the image data volume and multiple sensors and associated challenges on the development of change detection techniques are highlighted. With the wide use of very-high-resolution (VHR) remotely sensed images, object-based methods and data mining techniques may have more potential in change detection.

1,159 citations