TL;DR: Longer daily exposure to TV during early childhood (age 4–5) may be associated with subsequent problematic child self-regulatory behavior, and video games may have a protective effect on the risk of problematic self-Regulatory behavior at ages 3 and 5.
Abstract: Objective The effect of media use on child behavior has long been a concern. Although studies have shown robust cross-sectional relations between TV viewing and child behavior, longitudinal studies remain scarce. Methods We analyzed the Longitudinal Survey of Babies, conducted by Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare since 2001. Among 53,575 families, 47,010 responded to the baseline survey; they were followed up every year for 8 years. Complete data were available for longitudinal analysis among 32,439 participants. Daily media use (TV viewing and video game-playing hours at ages 3, 4, and 5 years) was used as the main exposure. We employed an index of the children's self-regulatory behavior as the outcome variable. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results Among boys, longer TV-viewing times at ages 4 and 5 were related to problematic self-regulatory behavior. Compared with boys who watched just 1-2 h of TV a day, those who watched it 4-5 h had a 1.79-fold greater risk (CI 1.22-2.64) of problematic self-regulatory behavior, according to parental report. Among girls, similar results were evident at ages 4 and 5 (e.g., adjusted odds ratios for 4-5 h daily viewing versus 1-2 h at age 4: 2.59; 95 % CI 1.59-4.22). Video games may have a protective effect on the risk of problematic self-regulatory behavior at ages 3 and 5. Conclusion Longer daily exposure to TV during early childhood (age 4-5) may be associated with subsequent problematic child self-regulatory behavior.
TL;DR: Overall, changes in network sizes were small, and it cannot be concluded that serious social decay occurs among married Japanese people.
Abstract: Few studies have examined changes in network size during the past 20 years in Japan despite changes in many other aspects of Japanese society that could affect Japanese social relationships. I conducted a time-series cross-sectional survey to investigate changes in network size for married Japanese people from 1993 to 2014. Results follow: 1) core network sizes decreased slightly; 2) the number of married males with no core network outside their households increased slightly; 3) kin and neighbour network sizes decreased and friend network size increased among married females; 4) kin network size decreased among married males; and 5) the probability of younger married males having no network friends increased. Overall, changes in network sizes were small, and we cannot conclude that serious social decay occurs among married Japanese people.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identified the psychological and behavioral factors that have been suggested in the psychology literature and in rural studies as factors affecting people's decision to move to rural areas.
Abstract: In recent times, many studies have been conducted to understand those who migrate to rural areas. However, few have investigated the psychological and behavioral factors that affect people's decisions to migrate to rural areas. This study identifies the psychological and behavioral factors that have been suggested in the psychology literature and in rural studies as factors affecting people's decision to move to rural areas. The study is unique in that it categorizes the psychological states during the process of rural migration decision into three levels and identifies how psychological and behavioral factors affect people at each level. Researchers collected data from 906 respondents in Japan, including 128 people who had migrated to rural areas. The findings show that environmental and health concerns were significantly associated with initiating the procedure of the rural migration decision, while motives related to spiritual growth and employment were strongly connected with completing the procedure by actually migrating to rural areas. These findings contribute to a better understanding of a question that attracts a great deal of political attention in Japan: Why are rural areas gaining popularity especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011? This study represents the first time that the importance of psychological and behavioral traits, as measured by psychometrically sound scales, has been confirmed within a model explaining the decision to migrate to rural areas.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors focus on the intangible aspects of human-nature relationships: people's direct and emotional attachment to their land and interrelationships between close-knit human communities and a thriving natural environment.
Abstract: Abstract Communities in socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes are aging and depopulating. While longstanding interdependence of humans and nature in such areas holds crucial hints for sustainable development, they continue to be undervalued by existing economic frameworks. We suspect omission of non-material nature’s contributions to people (NCPs) as a possible reason for this undervaluation and focus on the intangible aspects of human–nature relationships: people’s direct and emotional attachment to their land and interrelationships between close-knit human communities and a thriving natural environment. Field observations on Sado Island, Japan, and literature reviews informed our hypothesis that perceived nature, conceptual human–nature relationships, place attachment, and social relationships contribute to subjective wellbeing. Structural equation modeling of island-wide questionnaire responses confirmed our hypothesis. Nature contributes to wellbeing by enhancing place attachment and social relationships; ecocentrism contributes to greater values of perceived nature. Free-response comments elucidated how local foods and close interpersonal relationships enhance residents’ happiness and good quality of life, as well as how aging and depopulation impact their sense of loneliness. These results lend empirical support to the understanding of human–nature interdependency in socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes. In assessing their value to local residents and society at large, greater consideration should be given to intangible aspects of human–nature relationships and quality of life.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine how information broadcasting through television (TV) media influences stock market activities and find that increased information flow via TV is significantly associated with greater trading volume and larger price change.
Abstract: This study examines how information broadcasting through television (TV) media influences stock market activities. Consistent with the effect of TV information to attract investor attention, we find that increased information flow via TV is significantly associated with greater trading volume and larger price change. Market liquidity (bid–ask spread) is improved for more TV information flows, suggesting that new information arrival in the market widens information asymmetry. As for information type, hard information from business-oriented programs and earnings-related news contributes to the attention effect of media compared with soft information. Finally, the impact of TV is more influential for stocks with more individual shareholders than those with institutional shareholders.