Other affiliations: University of Tokyo
Bio: Hirotaka Matsuda is an academic researcher from Tokyo University of Agriculture. The author has contributed to research in topics: Livelihood & Agricultural productivity. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 45 publications receiving 461 citations. Previous affiliations of Hirotaka Matsuda include University of Tokyo.
TL;DR: The positive correlations between EC and trace and toxic elements indicated the potential influence of groundwater salinization on the dissolution of more chemical contaminants in the aquifer, representing possible saltwater intrusion along the coastal aquifer.
Abstract: Household drinking water security is one of the major issues among coastal communities in Bangladesh. To examine the groundwater quality and social consequences, groundwater samples and household questionnaires were administered across the study area. Instrumental and statistical tools were used to analyze the water quality and social survey data. The average concentrations of electrical conductivity (EC) (7135.67 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (TDS) (3691 mg/L), Na+ (1569.51 mg/L), Ca2+ (289.5 mg/L), Mg2+ (340.51 mg/L), Cl− (2940.78 mg/L), F− (11.85 mg/L), NO3− (54.44 mg/L), NO2− (162.95 mg/L), PO43− (105.19 mg/L), Fe (4.9 mg/L), Mn (1.22 mg/L), As (16.55 μg/L), B (833.28 μg/L), and Pb (34.22 μg/L) were observed in groundwater, and exceeded the drinking water standards from 30% to 100% depending on the sampling location. Thus, the remarkably high contents of EC, TDS, Cl−, and Na+ represented possible saltwater intrusion along the coastal aquifer. The positive correlations between EC and trace and toxic elements indicated the potential influence of groundwater salinization on the dissolution of more chemical contaminants in the aquifer. These results showed that 100% of samples were unsuitable for drinking purposes. Severe drinking water scarcity is a serious issue, and local people have been affected by water-related diseases owing to the long-term consumption of contaminated water. Salinity problems in drinking water and related health diseases have increased significantly in the past several years. In addition, climate change and its associated hazards, including sea-level rise, cyclonic storm surges, flooding, and resulting inundation problems, have intensified the drinking water scarcity and health problems at the community level. To ensure household water security, environmental exposure, hydrogeology, and anthropogenic interventions must be considered to determine future sustainable water policies.
TL;DR: Travel time was found to be negatively associated with height-for-age z-scores at the 5% level in a stepwise regression analysis that controlled for wealth index, mother's primary and secondary education, sex of the child, preceding birth interval, and birth order.
Abstract: The prevalence of stunting in children less than five years of age is elevated in Rwanda. It is one of the main health challenges upon which the government is struggling to achieve progress. Health centers and district hospitals in Rwanda are expected to provide a package of health services including nutrition related activities, nutritional rehabilitation, education, and growth monitoring. They can hence play a potent role in alleviating malnutrition and stunting in Rwanda. This study tested whether travel time from household clusters to the nearest health center was significantly and negatively associated with the distribution of height-for-age z-scores of younger than five year old children in the eastern province of Rwanda. Data for 974 children was extracted from the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) database. However, since DHS does not contain any information on travel time to health centers, the latter was simulated using AccessMod 4.0, an extension to ArcGIS 9.3.1 that simulates health facilities' catchment areas and travel times to health facilities. Travel time was found to be negatively associated with height-for-age z-scores at the 5% level in a stepwise regression analysis that controlled for wealth index, mother's primary and secondary education, sex of the child, preceding birth interval, and birth order of the child. Field measurements are needed to validate travel time. If validated, results point to the importance of improved access to healthcare facilities as a potential pathway in reducing stunting in Rwanda.
TL;DR: Results showed a high migration risk in the unions of Gabura, Munshigonj, Atulia, Burigoaliny, and Padmapukur (from highest risk to lowest), as these areas exhibit worsening situations with respect to drinking water scarcity, salinity hazards, and health hazard, and their adaptive capacities are significantly low.
Abstract: Bangladesh is a deltaic country and is highly vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise. This study explores population migration risk in relation to communal crisis due to socioeconomic vulnerability, drinking water scarcity, and health threats caused by salinity hazards. For this, we conducted a household questionnaire survey as well as, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and field observations. To identify the drinking water salinity and migration risk, our theoretical process hypothesizes a new composite indexing approach. Salinity hazards and potable water crises have increased the spread of human diseases and treatment costs, while socioeconomic crisis and poverty are inseparable risks of coastal communities because of frequent cyclone hits. Recently, salinity hazards have added a new dimension to health insecurities and household financial instability. Results showed a high migration risk in the unions of Gabura, Munshigonj, Atulia, Burigoaliny, and Padmapukur (from highest risk to lowest), as these areas exhibit worsening situations with respect to drinking water scarcity, salinity hazards, and health hazards, and their adaptive capacities are significantly low. Furthermore, socioeconomic vulnerabilities to cyclone hits, salinity hazards, and severe drinking water scarcity may soon contribute to increased population migration in response to climate change, sea level rise, and the associated impacts of these trends. To tackle the future mass population migration problem, urgent action is required to improve socioeconomic conditions, and provide alternative sources of potable water and health care facilities. Hard and soft measures must be ensured to reconstruct vulnerable areas impacted by riverbank erosion, flooding, and waterlogging. Additionally, action should be taken to enhance local awareness of coastal disasters, their associated hazardous consequences, and possible mitigation and adaptation measures.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors assess the asset levels of farm households from a gender perspective, using a household questionnaire survey to collect data from two hundred households in the Fanteakwa district of eastern Ghana and find that natural, social and financial assets were the three most endowed assets with physical and human assets being the least.
Abstract: Poverty studies have demonstrated that a group’s ability to escape poverty is largely dependent on the types of assets that the group’s members possess. A major claim that has been asserted with limited empirical evidence in the asset literature is the gender disparity dichotomy. Using rural Ghana as a case study, we assess the asset levels of farm households from a gender perspective. In doing so, we theorized and empirically tested assets on case bases. A household questionnaire survey was used to collect data from two hundred households in the Fanteakwa district of eastern Ghana. An asset index was used to compute the asset levels, while Kruskal–Wallis statistics was employed to compare the significance of the temporal changes. The results show a minimum level of asset endowment. Natural, social and financial assets were the three most endowed assets, with physical and human assets being the least. A gender analysis shows no significant difference, even though the levels of assets for the female-headed households were slightly higher than those of the male-headed households. However, the study found a 22.7% increment in the accumulation of financial assets among the female-headed households over the last 5 years compared to a 9.3% decrement in the same assets for their male-headed counterparts. Applying our theory, the results present an unbalanced and unstable asset situation among the household heads. We call for improvement, in physical and human assets. The overall study results imply an improvement in gender-asset accessibility in the context of rural Ghana.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reveal the internal and external food flows necessary for the food security of three wealthy capital cities (Canberra, Australia; Copenhagen, Denmark; Tokyo, Japan) and calculate the productivity of the city's regional and non-regional ecosystems that provide food for these cities and estimate the overall utilised land area.
Abstract: Most people live in cities, but most food system studies and food security issues focus on the rural poor. Urban populations differ from rural populations in their food consumption by being generally wealthier, requiring food trade for their food security, defined as the extent to which people have adequate diets. Cities rarely have the self-provisioning capacity to satisfy their own food supply, understood as the extent to which the food consumed by the city's population is produced from the city's local agro-ecosystems. Almost inevitably, a city's food security is augmented by production from remote landscapes, both internal and external in terms of a state's jurisdiction. We reveal the internal and external food flows necessary for the food security of three wealthy capital cities (Canberra, Australia; Copenhagen, Denmark; Tokyo, Japan). These cities cover two orders of magnitude in population size and three orders of magnitude in population density. From traded volumes of food and their sources into the cities, we calculate the productivity of the city's regional and non-regional ecosystems that provide food for these cities and estimate the overall utilised land area. The three cities exhibit differing degrees of food self-provisioning capacity and exhibit large differences in the areas on which they depend to provide their food. We show that, since 1965, global land area effectively imported to produce food for these cities has increased with their expanding populations, with large reductions in the percentage of demand met by local agro-ecosystems. The physical trading of food commodities embodies ecosystem services, such as water, soil fertility and pollination that are required for land-based food production. This means that the trade in these embodied ecosystem services has become as important for food security as traditional economic mechanisms such as market access and trade. A future policy question, raised by our study, is the degree to which governments will remain committed to open food trade policies in the face of national political unrest caused by food shortages. Our study demonstrates the need to determine the food security and self-provisioning capacity of a wide range of rich and poor cities, taking into account the global location of the ecosystems that are provisioning them.
TL;DR: In this paper, a documento: "Cambiamenti climatici 2007: impatti, adattamento e vulnerabilita" voteato ad aprile 2007 dal secondo gruppo di lavoro del Comitato Intergovernativo sui Cambiamentsi Climatici (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).
Abstract: Impatti, adattamento e vulnerabilita Le cause e le responsabilita dei cambiamenti climatici sono state trattate sul numero di ottobre della rivista Cda. Approfondiamo l’argomento presentando il documento: “Cambiamenti climatici 2007: impatti, adattamento e vulnerabilita” votato ad aprile 2007 dal secondo gruppo di lavoro del Comitato Intergovernativo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Si tratta del secondo di tre documenti che compongono il quarto rapporto sui cambiamenti climatici.
23 Mar 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyse les relations conceptuelles (imprecises) de la vulnerabilite, de la resilience and de la capacite d'adaptation aux changements climatiques selon le systeme socioecologique (socio-ecologigal systems -SES) afin de comprendre and anticiper le comportement des composantes sociales et ecologiques du systeme.
Abstract: Cet article analyse les relations conceptuelles (imprecises) de la vulnerabilite, de la resilience et de la capacite d’adaptation aux changements climatiques selon le systeme socio-ecologique (socio-ecologigal systems – SES) afin de comprendre et anticiper le comportement des composantes sociales et ecologiques du systeme. Une serie de questions est proposee par l’auteur sur la specification de ces termes afin de developper une structure conceptuelle qui inclut les dimensions naturelles et so...
TL;DR: Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information Within the R&D Organization is summarized, showing how human and organizational systems could be restructured to bring about improved productivity and better person-to-person contact.
Abstract: The original edition of this book summarized more than a decade of work on communications flow in science and engineering organizations, showing how human and organizational systems could be restructured to bring about improved productivity and better person-to-person contact. While many studies have been done since then, few of them invalidate the general conclusions and recommendations Allen offers. In a new preface he points out new developments, noting areas that need some modification, elaboration, or extension, and directing readers to the appropriate journal articles where the findings, are reported. The first three chapters provide an overview of the communication system in technology, present the author's research methods, and describe differences in the career paths and goals of engineers and scientists that cause special problems for organizations. The book then discusses how technological information is acquired by the R & D organization, shows how critical technical communication within the laboratory is for R & D performance, and originates the idea of the \"gatekeeper,\" the person who links his or her organization to the world at large. Concluding chapters take up the influence of formal and informal organization and of architecture and office layouts on communication. Many of these ideas have been successfully incorporated by architects and managers in the design of new R & D facilities and complexes. Suggested Citation Handle: RePEc:mtp:titles:0262510278 Download reference as HTML Thomas J. Allen, 1984. \"Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information Within the R&D Organization,\" MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262510278, November. More services and features MyIDEAS Follow serials, authors, keywords & more New papers by email Subscribe to new additions to RePEc Author registration Public profiles for Economics researchers MPRA Upload your paper to be listed on RePEc and IDEAS EconAcademics Blog aggregator for economics research Plagiarism Cases of plagiarism in Economics Rankings Various rankings of research in Economics & related fields RePEc Genealogy Who was a student of whom, using RePEc RePEc Biblio Curated articles & papers on various economics topics Job market papers RePEc working paper series dedicated to the job market Fantasy league Pretend you are at the helm of an economics department Services from the StL Fed Data, research, apps & more from the St. Louis Fed IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this article, the economic, social and environmental aspects are discussed to define a sustainable society which provide a healthy, productive, meaningful life for generations, both present and future, both past and future.
Abstract: This presentation is to give a brief introduction to sustainable development which is related to the quality of life in a society. In the first part, the economic, social and environmental aspects are discussed to define a sustainable society which provide a healthy, productive, meaningful life for generations, both present and future. The second part of the presentation would focus on presenting indicators of sustainability and their measures. Indicators generally simplify in order to make complex phenomena quantifiable so that information can be measured and communicated. Sustainability indicators reflect the reality that the three different segments, the economic, social and environmental, are very tightly interconnected. They like to be informed about the state of these segments and how and why they are changing. The target audiences of this presentation is people who involve in environmental, clean energy activitities or in sustainable development in general. It is expected to be helpful for the audiences in developing indicators for their actual works.