Other affiliations: Ebara Corporation, National Presto Industries, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Bio: Hirotsugu Ogi is an academic researcher from Osaka University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Electromagnetic acoustic transducer & Resonance. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 321 publications receiving 5718 citations. Previous affiliations of Hirotsugu Ogi include Ebara Corporation & National Presto Industries.
Papers published on a yearly basis
03 Dec 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of EMAT techniques and their applications in the industrial domain, including on-line texture monitoring of steel sheets and in-situ monitoring of Dislocation Mobility.
Abstract: Preface. Introduction: Noncontact Ultrasonic Measurements. Brief Historical Sketch of EMAT. Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance - EMAR. Part I: Development of EMAT Techniques. 1: Coupling Mechanism. 1.1. Background. 1.2. Generation Mechanism. 1.3. Receiving Mechanisms. 1.4. Comparison with Measurements. 2 : Available EMATS. 2.1. Bulk-Wave EMATs. 2.2. Longitudinal-Guided-Wave EMAT for Wires and Pipes. 2.3. PPM EMAT. 2.4. Meander-Line Coil SH-Wave EMAT. 2.5. SH-Wave EMAT for Chirp Pulse Compression. 2.6. Axial-Shear-Wave EMAT. 2.7. SH-Wave EMAT for Resonance in Bolt Head. 2.8. Rayleigh-Wave EMAT. 2.9. Line-Focusing EMAT. 2.10. Trapped-Torsional-Mode EMAT. 2.11. EMATs for High Temperature Measurements. 3: Brief Instruction To Build EMATs. 3.1. Coil. 3.2. Magnets. 3.3. Impedance Matching. Part II: Resonance Spectroscopy with EMATs -EMAR-. 4: Principles of EMAR for Spectral Response. 4.1. Through-Thickness Resonance. 4.2. Spectroscopy with Analog Superheterodyne Processing. 4.3. Determination of Resonance Frequency and Phase Angle. 5: Free-Decay Measurement For Attenuation And Internal Friction. 5.1. Difficulty of Attenuation Measurement. 5.2. Isolation of Ultrasonic Attenuation. 5.3. Measurement of Attenuation Coefficient. 5.4. Correction for Diffraction Loss. 5.5. Comparison with Conventional Technique. Part III: Physical-Acoustics Studies. 6: In-Situ Monitoring Of Dislocation Mobility. 6.1. Dislocation-Damping Model for Low Frequencies. 6.2. Elasto-Plastic Deformation in Copper. 6.3. Point-Defect Diffusion toward Dislocations in Deformed Aluminum. 6.4. Dislocation Damping after Elastic Deformation in Al-Zn Alloy. 6.5. Recovery and Recrystallization in Aluminum. 7: Elastic Constants and Internal Friction of Advanced Materials. 7.1. Mode Control in Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy by EMAR. 7.2. Inverse Calculation for Cij and Qij-1. 7.3. Monocrystal Copper. 7.4. Metal-Matrix Composites (SiCf/Ti-6Al-4V). 7.5. Lotus-Type Porous Copper. 7.6. Ni-Base Superalloys. 7.7. Thin Films. 7.8. Piezoelectric Material (Langasite: La3Ga5SiO14). 8: Nonlinear Acoustics. Part IV: Industrial Applications. 9: On-Line Texture Monitoring Of Steel Sheets. 9.1. Texture of Polycrystalline Metals. 9.2. Mathematical Expressions of Texture and Velocity Anisotropy. 9.3. Relation between ODCs and r-Values. 9.4. On-Line Monitoring with Magnetostrictive-Type EMATs. 10: Acoustoelastic Stress Measurements. 10.1. Nonlinear Elasticity. 10.2. Acoustoelastic Response of Solids. 10.3. Birefringence Acoustoelasticity. 10.4. Practical Stress Measurements with EMAR. 10.5. Monitoring Bolt Axial Stress. 11: Measurements On High-Temperature Steels. 11.1. Velocity Variation at High Temperatures. 11.2. Solidification-Shell Thickness of Continuous Casting S
TL;DR: By monitoring the kinetics of the formation of amyloid fibrils and glass-like amorphous aggregates, it is shown that solubility and supersaturation will be key factors for further understanding the aberrant aggregation of proteins.
Abstract: Amyloid fibrils and amorphous aggregates are two types of aberrant aggregates associated with protein misfolding diseases. Although they differ in morphology, the two forms are often treated indiscriminately. β2-microglobulin (β2m), a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, forms amyloid fibrils or amorphous aggregates depending on the NaCl concentration at pH 2.5. We compared the kinetics of their formation, which was monitored by measuring thioflavin T fluorescence, light scattering, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate fluorescence. Thioflavin T fluorescence specifically monitors amyloid fibrillation, whereas light scattering and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate fluorescence monitor both amyloid fibrillation and amorphous aggregation. The amyloid fibrils formed via a nucleation-dependent mechanism in a supersaturated solution, analogous to crystallization. The lag phase of fibrillation was reduced upon agitation with stirring or ultrasonic irradiation, and disappeared by seeding with preformed fibrils. In contrast, the glass-like amorphous aggregates formed rapidly without a lag phase. Neither agitation nor seeding accelerated the amorphous aggregation. Thus, by monitoring the kinetics, we can distinguish between crystal-like amyloid fibrils and glass-like amorphous aggregates. Solubility and supersaturation will be key factors for further understanding the aberrant aggregation of proteins.
TL;DR: In this paper, a periodic-permanent-magnet (PPM) EMAT is placed inside the pipe, which generates and receives the SH guided waves traveling in the circumferential direction with the axial polarization.
Abstract: An EMAT technique has been developed to detect corrosion defects on the outer surfaces of steel pipelines. A periodic-permanent-magnet (PPM) EMAT is placed inside the pipe, which generates and receives the SH guided waves traveling in the circumferential direction with the axial polarization. Wheels installed on the PPM-EMAT facilitate the linear movement in the axial direction and are useful for a quick inspection. At each point in scanning, the amplitude and phase shift of the round-trip signals in the SH0 and SH1 modes are measured using a superheterodyne phase-sensitive detector. They respond uniquely to surface defects and provide relevant information for locating axial positions of defects and evaluating the depth. The amplitude and phase shift of the SH1 mode are more sensitive to the presence of the defects than those of the SH0 mode. This technique is useful even if the protective resin coating is tightly glued on the pipes and lowered the signal intensity.
TL;DR: This study adopts a laser-Doppler interferometer to measure the displacement-distribution patterns on a surface of the vibrating specimen mounted on pinducers and comparison of the measured displacement distributions with those computed permits us to correctly identify the measured resonance frequencies, leading to unmistakable determination of elastic constants.
Abstract: This study is devoted to deducing exact elastic constants of an anisotropic solid material without using any advance information on the elastic constants by incorporating a displacement-distribution measurement into resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). The usual RUS method measures free-vibration resonance frequencies of a solid and compares them with calculations to find the most suitable set of elastic constants by an inverse calculation. This comparison requires mode identification for the measured resonance frequencies, which has been difficult and never been free from ambiguity. This study then adopts a laser-Doppler interferometer to measure the displacement-distribution patterns on a surface of the vibrating specimen mounted on pinducers; comparison of the measured displacement distributions with those computed permits us to correctly identify the measured resonance frequencies, leading to unmistakable determination of elastic constants. Because the displacement patterns are hardly affected by the elastic constants, an exact answer is surely obtained even when unreasonable elastic constants are used as initial guesses at the beginning of the inverse calculation. The usefulness of the present technique is demonstrated with an aluminum alloy and a langasite crystal.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of recent advances in understanding the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses, with particular emphasis on the deformation and fracture mechanisms, is presented, where the role of glass structure on mechanical properties, and conversely, the effect of deformation upon glass structure, are also described.
TL;DR: In this paper, the complexity and variety of fundamental phenomena in this material system with a focus on phase transformations and mechanical behaviour are discussed. And the challenges that lie ahead in achieving these goals are delineated.
Abstract: This article presents an overview of the developments in stainless steels made since the 1990s. Some of the new applications that involve the use of stainless steel are also introduced. A brief introduction to the various classes of stainless steels, their precipitate phases and the status quo of their production around the globe is given first. The advances in a variety of subject areas that have been made recently will then be presented. These recent advances include (1) new findings on the various precipitate phases (the new J phase, new orientation relationships, new phase diagram for the Fe–Cr system, etc.); (2) new suggestions for the prevention/mitigation of the different problems and new methods for their detection/measurement and (3) new techniques for surface/bulk property enhancement (such as laser shot peening, grain boundary engineering and grain refinement). Recent developments in topics like phase prediction, stacking fault energy, superplasticity, metadynamic recrystallisation and the calculation of mechanical properties are introduced, too. In the end of this article, several new applications that involve the use of stainless steels are presented. Some of these are the use of austenitic stainless steels for signature authentication (magnetic recording), the utilisation of the cryogenic magnetic transition of the sigma phase for hot spot detection (the Sigmaplugs), the new Pt-enhanced radiopaque stainless steel (PERSS) coronary stents and stainless steel stents that may be used for magnetic drug targeting. Besides recent developments in conventional stainless steels, those in the high-nitrogen, low-Ni (or Ni-free) varieties are also introduced. These recent developments include new methods for attaining very high nitrogen contents, new guidelines for alloy design, the merits/demerits associated with high nitrogen contents, etc.
TL;DR: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson9s disease as discussed by the authors have been proposed for clinical diagnosis, which are intended for use in clinical research, but may also be used to guide clinical diagnosis.
Abstract: Objective To present the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson9s disease. Background Although several diagnostic criteria for Parkinson9s disease have been proposed, none have been officially adopted by an official Parkinson society. Moreover, the commonest-used criteria, the UK brain bank, were created more than 25 years ago. In recognition of the lack of standard criteria, the MDS initiated a task force to design new diagnostic criteria for clinical Parkinson9s disease. Methods/Results The MDS-PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research, but may also be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark is expert clinical diagnosis; the criteria aim to systematize the diagnostic process, to make it reproducible across centers and applicable by clinicians with less expertise. Although motor abnormalities remain central, there is increasing recognition of non-motor manifestations; these are incorporated into both the current criteria and particularly into separate criteria for prodromal PD. Similar to previous criteria, the MDS-PD Criteria retain motor parkinsonism as the core disease feature, defined as bradykinesia plus rest tremor and/or rigidity. Explicit instructions for defining these cardinal features are included. After documentation of parkinsonism, determination of PD as the cause of parkinsonism relies upon three categories of diagnostic features; absolute exclusion criteria (which rule out PD), red flags (which must be counterbalanced by additional supportive criteria to allow diagnosis of PD), and supportive criteria (positive features that increase confidence of PD diagnosis). Two levels of certainty are delineated: Clinically-established PD (maximizing specificity at the expense of reduced sensitivity), and Probable PD (which balances sensitivity and specificity). Conclusion The MDS criteria retain elements proven valuable in previous criteria and omit aspects that are no longer justified, thereby encapsulating diagnosis according to current knowledge. As understanding of PD expands, criteria will need continuous revision to accommodate these advances. Disclosure: Dr. Postuma has received personal compensation for activities with Roche Diagnostics Corporation and Biotie Therapies. Dr. Berg has received research support from Michael J. Fox Foundation, the Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the German Parkinson Association and Novartis GmbH.
01 Jan 2016
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