Other affiliations: Tsinghua University, Renmin University of China, University of Toulouse ...read more
Bio: Hong-Hua Fang is an academic researcher from University of Groningen. The author has contributed to research in topics: Perovskite (structure) & Amplified spontaneous emission. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 92 publications receiving 5983 citations. Previous affiliations of Hong-Hua Fang include Tsinghua University & Renmin University of China.
TL;DR: In this paper, single-crystal perovskite devices 2-3 mm thick exhibit 16.4% X-ray detection efficiency with sensitivity four times higher than α-Se detectors.
Abstract: Single-crystal perovskite devices 2–3 mm thick exhibit 16.4% X-ray detection efficiency with sensitivity four times higher than α-Se X-ray detectors.
TL;DR: In this article, a 2D/3D-based hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) with the orthorhombic a-axis in the out-of-plane direction were shown to achieve a power conversion efficiency of 9.0% in planar p-i-n device structure.
Abstract: The low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of tin-based hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) is mainly attributed to the high background carrier density due to a high density of intrinsic defects such as Sn vacancies and oxidized species (Sn4+) that characterize Sn-based HPSCs. Herein, this study reports on the successful reduction of the background carrier density by more than one order of magnitude by depositing near-single-crystalline formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) films with the orthorhombic a-axis in the out-of-plane direction. Using these highly crystalline films, obtained by mixing a very small amount (0.08 m) of layered (2D) Sn perovskite with 0.92 m (3D) FASnI3, for the first time a PCE as high as 9.0% in a planar p–i–n device structure is achieved. These devices display negligible hysteresis and light soaking, as they benefit from very low trap-assisted recombination, low shunt losses, and more efficient charge collection. This represents a 50% improvement in PCE compared to the best reference cell based on a pure FASnI3 film using SnF2 as a reducing agent. Moreover, the 2D/3D-based HPSCs show considerable improved stability due to the enhanced robustness of the perovskite film compared to the reference cell.
TL;DR: Benzylamine is introduced as a surface passivation molecule that improves the moisture-resistance of the perovskites while simultaneously enhancing their electronic properties.
Abstract: Benzylamine is introduced as a surface passivation molecule that improves the moisture-resistance of the perovskites while simultaneously enhancing their electronic properties. Solar cells based on benzylamine-modified formamidinium lead iodide perovskite films exhibit a champion efficiency of 19.2% and an open-circuit voltage of 1.12 V. The modified FAPbI3 films exhibit no degradation after >2800 h air exposure.
TL;DR: The tetragonal phase with D4h symmetry as the reference phase for 2D monolayered HOP allows for detailed analysis of the spin-orbit coupling effects and structural transitions with corresponding electronic band folding and provides an interpretive and predictive framework for 3D and 2D layered HOP optoelectronic properties.
Abstract: Layered halide hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells and revisited for light-emitting devices. In this review, we combine classical solid-state physics concepts with simulation tools based on density functional theory to overview the main features of the optoelectronic properties of layered HOP. A detailed comparison between layered and 3D HOP is performed to highlight differences and similarities. In the same way as the cubic phase was established for 3D HOP, here we introduce the tetragonal phase with D4h symmetry as the reference phase for 2D monolayered HOP. It allows for detailed analysis of the spin–orbit coupling effects and structural transitions with corresponding electronic band folding. We further investigate the effects of octahedral tilting on the b...
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural and optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 from room temperature to 5 K were investigated, and X-ray diffraction reveals an extremely sharp transition at 163 K from a twinned tetragonal I4/mcm phase to a low temperature phase characterized by complex twinning and possible frozen disorder.
Abstract: Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the structural and optical properties of high-quality single crystals of CH3NH3PbI3 from room temperature to 5 K are investigated. X-ray diffraction reveals an extremely sharp transition at 163 K from a twinned tetragonal I4/mcm phase to a low-temperature phase characterized by complex twinning and possible frozen disorder. Above the transition temperature, the photoluminescence is in agreement with a band-edge transition, explaining the outstanding performances of the solar cells. Whereas below the transition temperature, three different excitonic features arise, one of which is attributed to a free-exciton and the other two to bound excitons (BEs). The BEs are characterized by a decay dynamics of about 5 μs and by a saturation phenomenon at high power excitation. The long lifetime and the saturation effect make us attribute these low temperature features to bound triplet excitons. This results in a description of the room temperature recombination as being due to spontaneous band-to-band radiative transitions, whereas a diffusion-limited behavior is expected for the low-temperature range.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analysis of the chiral stationary phase transition of Na6(CO3)(SO4)2, a major component of the response of the immune system to Na2CO3.
Abstract: Ju Mei,†,‡,∥ Nelson L. C. Leung,†,‡,∥ Ryan T. K. Kwok,†,‡ Jacky W. Y. Lam,†,‡ and Ben Zhong Tang*,†,‡,§ †HKUST-Shenzhen Research Institute, Hi-Tech Park, Nanshan, Shenzhen 518057, China ‡Department of Chemistry, HKUST Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, Division of Biomedical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Guangdong Innovative Research Team, SCUT-HKUST Joint Research Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
TL;DR: In this critical review, recent progress in the area ofAIE research is summarized and typical examples of AIE systems are discussed, from which their structure-property relationships are derived.
Abstract: Luminogenic materials with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) attributes have attracted much interest since the debut of the AIE concept in 2001. In this critical review, recent progress in the area of AIE research is summarized. Typical examples of AIE systems are discussed, from which their structure–property relationships are derived. Through mechanistic decipherment of the photophysical processes, structural design strategies for generating new AIE luminogens are developed. Technological, especially optoelectronic and biological, applications of the AIE systems are exemplified to illustrate how the novel AIE effect can be utilized for high-tech innovations (183 references).
TL;DR: “United the authors stand, United they fall”–Aesop.
Abstract: "United we stand, divided we fall."--Aesop. Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) refers to a photophysical phenomenon shown by a group of luminogenic materials that are non-emissive when they are dissolved in good solvents as molecules but become highly luminescent when they are clustered in poor solvents or solid state as aggregates. In this Review we summarize the recent progresses made in the area of AIE research. We conduct mechanistic analyses of the AIE processes, unify the restriction of intramolecular motions (RIM) as the main cause for the AIE effects, and derive RIM-based molecular engineering strategies for the design of new AIE luminogens (AIEgens). Typical examples of the newly developed AIEgens and their high-tech applications as optoelectronic materials, chemical sensors and biomedical probes are presented and discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a class of π;-conjugated compounds that exhibit large δ (as high as 1, 250 × 10−50 cm4 s per photon) and enhanced two-photon sensitivity relative to ultraviolet initiators were developed and used to demonstrate a scheme for three-dimensional data storage which permits fluorescent and refractive read-out, and the fabrication of 3D micro-optical and micromechanical structures, including photonic-bandgap-type structures.
Abstract: Two-photon excitation provides a means of activating chemical or physical processes with high spatial resolution in three dimensions and has made possible the development of three-dimensional fluorescence imaging, optical data storage, and lithographic microfabrication. These applications take advantage of the fact that the two-photon absorption probability depends quadratically on intensity, so under tight-focusing conditions, the absorption is confined at the focus to a volume of order λ3 (where λ is the laser wavelength). Any subsequent process, such as fluorescence or a photoinduced chemical reaction, is also localized in this small volume. Although three-dimensional data storage and microfabrication have been illustrated using two-photon-initiated polymerization of resins incorporating conventional ultraviolet-absorbing initiators, such photopolymer systems exhibit low photosensitivity as the initiators have small two-photon absorption cross-sections (δ). Consequently, this approach requires high laser power, and its widespread use remains impractical. Here we report on a class of π;-conjugated compounds that exhibit large δ (as high as 1, 250 × 10−50 cm4 s per photon) and enhanced two-photon sensitivity relative to ultraviolet initiators. Two-photon excitable resins based on these new initiators have been developed and used to demonstrate a scheme for three-dimensional data storage which permits fluorescent and refractive read-out, and the fabrication of three-dimensional micro-optical and micromechanical structures, including photonic-bandgap-type structures.