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Author

Hong Liu

Other affiliations: Beihang University
Bio: Hong Liu is an academic researcher from East China Normal University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Authentication & Authentication protocol. The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 48 publication(s) receiving 2545 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Hong Liu include Beihang University.
Papers
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Book ChapterDOI
Jiawen Liu1, Shuaipeng Zhang1, Hong Liu1, Yan Zhang2Institutions (2)
25 Jun 2021
Abstract: The vehicular networks are vulnerable to cyber security attacks due to the vehicles’ large attack surface. Anomaly detection is an effective means to deal with this kind of attack. Due to the vehicle’s limited computation resources, the vehicular edge network (VEN) has been proposed provide additional computing power while meeting the demand of low latency. However, the time-space limitation of edge computing prevents the vehicle data from being fully utilized. To solve this problem, a digital twin vehicular edge networks (DITVEN) is proposed. The distributed trust evaluation is established based on the trust chain transitivity and aggregation for edge computing units and digital twins to ensure the credibility of digital twins. The local reachability density and outlier factor are introduced for the time awareness anomaly detection. The curl and divergence based elements are utilized to achieve the space awareness anomaly detection. The mutual trust evaluation and anomaly detection is implemented for performance analysis, which indicates that the proposed scheme is suitable for digital twin vehicular applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
Hong Liu1, Shuaipeng Zhang1, Pengfei Zhang1, Xinqiang Zhou2  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: This work proposes a cooperative intrusion detection mechanism that offloads the training model to distributed edge devices (e.g., connected vehicles and roadside units) and shows that the proposed scheme achieves cooperative privacy-preservation for vehicles while reducing communication overhead and computation cost.
Abstract: The vehicular networks constructed by interconnected vehicles and transportation infrastructure are vulnerable to cyber-intrusions due to the expanded use of software and the introduction of wireless interfaces. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) can be customized efficiently in response to this increased attack surface. There has been significant progress in detecting malicious attack traffic using machine learning approaches. However, existing IDSs require network devices with powerful computing capabilities to continuously train and update complex network models, which reduces the efficiency and defense capability of intrusion detection systems due to limited resources and untimely model updates. This work proposes a cooperative intrusion detection mechanism that offloads the training model to distributed edge devices (e.g., connected vehicles and roadside units (RSUs). Distributed federated-based approach reduces resource utilization of the central server while assuring security and privacy. To ensure the security of the aggregation model, blockchain is used for the storage and sharing of the training models. This work analyzes common attacks and shows that the proposed scheme achieves cooperative privacy-preservation for vehicles while reducing communication overhead and computation cost.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jia Hu1, Peng Liu2, Hong Liu3, Obinna Anya4  +1 moreInstitutions (5)
TL;DR: An increasing number of IoT devices and the emerging IoT applications are driving exponential growth in wireless traffic in the foreseeable future, and current IoT system architectures are facing significant challenges to handle millions of devices; thousands of servers; the transmission and processing of large volume of data.
Abstract: Nowadays we are witnessing the formation of a massive Internet-of-Things (IoT) ecosystem that integrates a variety of wireless-enabled devices ranging from smartphones, wearables, and virtual reality facilities to sensors, drones, and connected vehicles. As IoT is penetrating every aspect of people’s life, work, and entertainment, an increasing number of IoT devices and the emerging IoT applications are driving exponential growth in wireless traffic in the foreseeable future. As a result, current IoT system architectures are facing significant challenges to handle millions of devices; thousands of servers; the transmission and processing of large volume of data, etc.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hong Liu1, Pengfei Zhang1, Geguang Pu1, Tao Yang2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
TL;DR: A blockchain empowered group-authentication scheme is proposed for vehicles with decentralized identification based on secret sharing and dynamic proxy mechanism that achieves cooperative privacy preservation for vehicles while also reducing communication overhead and computation cost.
Abstract: The dynamic environment due to traffic mobility and wireless communication from/to vehicles make identity authentication and trust management for privacy preservation based on vehicular edge computing (VEC) an increasingly important problem in vehicular networks. However, existing authentication schemes mainly focus on communication between a single trusted edge computing node and multiple vehicles. This framework may suffer the bottleneck problem due to the single edge computing node, and the performance depends heavily on its resources. In this paper, a blockchain empowered group-authentication scheme is proposed for vehicles with decentralized identification based on secret sharing and dynamic proxy mechanism. Sub-authentication results are aggregated for trust management based blockchain to implement collaborative authentication. The edge computing node with a higher-reputation stored in the tamper-proof blockchain can upload the final aggregated authentication result to the central server to achieve the decentralized authentication. This work analyzes typical attacks for this scheme and shows that the proposed scheme achieves cooperative privacy preservation for vehicles while also reducing communication overhead and computation cost.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Fadi Farha1, Huansheng Ning1, Hong Liu2, Laurence T. Yang3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: Protecting the storage of ZigBee secret keys and showing how Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) can help the ZigBee devices to be robust tamper-resistant against the physical attacks are focused on.
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding rapidly and so is the number of devices, sensors and actuators joining this world. IoT devices are an important part of the data collection process in Big Data systems, so by protecting them we support and improve the security of the whole system. ZigBee is a secure communication system for the underlying Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. Even though ZigBee has a strong security stack built on a variety of secret keys, ZigBee devices are vulnerable to the side-channel and key extraction attacks. Due to the low cost and limited resources, most ZigBee devices store their secret keys in plaintext. In this paper, we focus on protecting the storage of ZigBee secret keys and show how Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) can help the ZigBee devices to be robust tamper-resistant against the physical attacks. The proposed schemes include PUF-based key storage protection and key generation. The experiments in this paper were done using SRAM-PUF. Furthermore, two algorithms were proposed to overcome the defects in the randomness of keys generated using SRAM-PUF and, at the same time, to increase the reliability of these keys. We were able to significantly improve the hardware security of ZEDs by protecting their keying materials using costless, high secure, random, stable and volatile PUF-based secret keys.

4 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
Tonghe Wang1, Haochen Hua2, Zhiqian Wei3, Junwei Cao1Institutions (3)
TL;DR: It is argued that blockchain is not a panacea for energy systems because blockchain’s component technologies have their own generic issues, and that the application of energy blockchain should be accompanied with improvement measures that conform to practical requirements of energy systems.
Abstract: Recently, the blockchain technology has attracted widespread attention due to its advantageous features, e.g., decentralization, transparency, traceability, and immutability. To make full use of renewable energy resources, new generation energy systems advocate the deep integration of information technology in real-world energy projects, among which blockchain has become one of the most used technologies. However, with the continuous development of related studies and projects, blockchain has begun to expose more and more limitations. As a result, the application of energy blockchain, i.e., blockchain applied in energy systems, is facing various challenges caused by these limitations. This paper briefly reviews popular application scenarios of energy blockchain, analyzes generic limitations of blockchain and their impacts on energy systems, and looks into possible directions that could deal with these limitations for future blockchain-based energy systems. We argue that blockchain is not a panacea for energy systems because blockchain’s component technologies have their own generic issues, and that the application of energy blockchain should be accompanied with improvement measures that conform to practical requirements of energy systems. As far as we know, this paper is one of the few works that deeply analyze the shortcomings of the blockchain technology and potential countermeasures in the energy field.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yueyue Tian1, Houping Yang1, Junjun Li, Shunbo Hu1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Using density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green’s function method, the transport properties of borophene-based nano gas sensors with gold electrodes are calculated, and comprehensive understandings regarding the effects of gas molecules, MoS2 substrate and gold electrodes to the transport properties of borophene are made. Results show that borophene-based sensors can be used to detect and distinguish CO, NO, NO2 and NH3 gas molecules, MoS2 substrate leads to a nonlinear behavior on the current-voltage characteristic, and gold electrodes provide charges to borophene and form a potential barrier, which reduced the current values compared to the current of the systems without gold electrodes. Our studies not only provide useful information on the computationally design of borophene-based gas sensors, but also help understand the transport behaviors and underlying physics of 2D metallic materials with metal electrodes.

Journal ArticleDOI
ChenChao1, HelalAbdelsalam (Sumi)2, JinZhi3, ZhangMingyue3  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Smart spaces such as smart homes deliver digital services to optimize space use and enhance user experience. They are composed of an Internet of Things (IoT), people, and physical content. They dif...

Journal ArticleDOI
Kaptan Rajput1, Junjie He2, Thomas Frauenheim3, Debesh R. Roy1  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Carbon and its analogous nanomaterials are beneficial for toxic gas sensors since they are used to increase the electrochemically active surface region and improve the transmission of electrons. The present article addresses a detailed investigation on the potential of the monolayer PC3 compound as a possible sensor material for environmentally toxic nitrogen-containing gases (NCGs), namely NH3, NO, and NO2. The entire work is carried out under the frameworks of density functional theory, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches. The monolayer-gas interactions are studied with the van der Waals dispersion correction. The stability of pristine monolayer PC3 is confirmed through dynamical, mechanical, and thermal analyses. The mobility and relaxation time of 2D PC3 sensor material with NCGs are obtained in the range of 101–104 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 101–103 fs for armchair and zigzag directions, respectively. Out of six possible adsorption sites for toxic gases on the PC3 surface, the most prominent site is identified with the highest adsorption energy for all the NCGs. Considering the most stable configuration site of the NCGs, we have obtained relevant electronic properties by utilizing the band unfolding technique. The considerable adsorption energies are obtained for NO and NO2 compared to NH3. Although physisorption is observed for all the NCGs on the PC3 surface, NO2 is found to convert into NO and O at 5.05 ps (at 300 K) under molecular dynamics simulation. The maximum charge transfer (0.31e) and work function (5.17 eV) are observed for the NO2 gas molecule in the series. Along with the considerable adsorption energies for NO and NO2 gas molecules, their shorter recovery time (0.071 s and 0.037 s, respectively) from the PC3 surface also identifies 2D PC3 as a promising sensor material for those environmentally toxic gases. The experimental viability and actual implications for PC3 monolayer as NCGs sensor material are also confirmed by examining the humidity effect and transport properties with modeled sensor devices. The transport properties (I-V characteristics) reflect the significant sensitivity of PC3 monolayer toward NO and NO2 molecules. These results certainly confirm PC3 monolayer as a promising sensor material for NO and NO2 NCG molecules.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The emergent of Fog computing as an extension of Cloud computing, from the center of the internet architecture to the IoT end user’s devices, aims to enhance the processing power of the resource-constraint IoT devices and deliver them other services since it locates close to these devices. This extension was also suggested to boost the standard of IoT system implementations thus decreasing energy consumption and latency for those applications that need fast responses. However, as stated in recent literature, Fog computing may have some important security and privacy challenges. On the other hand, Blockchain, which was generated and used in crypto-currencies, has been applied in a wider range of applications due to the security, privacy, distributed trust management, and reliability features provided. Among the applications, which have recently been attractive about blockchain is Fog computing. Blockchain in Fog computing may achieve a distributed and trusted, identity management, secure data, reputation, and payment systems. This survey discusses the state-of-the-art impact of the blockchain on the security and privacy of Fog computing. The findings elucidate the vision of blockchain in Fog computing-security and privacy-based enhancement and draw attention to open challenges and future research directions.

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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 20

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20212
20202
20195
20184
20172
20165