Houston C. Saunderson
Bio: Houston C. Saunderson is an academic researcher from Wilfrid Laurier University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Flume & Ligne. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 10 publications receiving 192 citations.
••29 Apr 2009
TL;DR: The Guelph esker as mentioned in this paper consists of a sinuous, steep-sided and segmented ridge which comprises poorly sorted, matrix-supported sands and gravels, indicating that virtually all sizes available were in transport.
Abstract: The Guelph esker (Ontario, Canada) consists of a sinuous, steep-sided and segmented ridge which comprises poorly sorted, matrix-supported sands and gravels. These sands and gravels were probably deposited during the sliding bed stage which has been observed by others in closed-conduit hydraulic experiments. The poor sorting probably resulted from a high concentration of bed-material load in the lower part of a subglacial tunnel, sorting being restricted to that produced by particle collisions. Inclusive graphic standard deviation is characteristically large for the sands and gravels, indicating that virtually all sizes available were in transport. The overall grain size distribution shows a characteristic undulatory shape on arithmetic probability paper, mostly because of selective removal of pebble gravel and granule sizes. This poorly sorted fades is believed to be diagnostic of transport in a subglacial tunnel flowing full of water, and may be used to identify subglacial conditions in other eskers. Deltaic sands and gravels occur downcurrent of the esker and contain a greater diversity of structures; climbing-ripple cross-laminae, parallel laminae and massive structure, deposited in large-scale foresees at the end of a subglacial tunnel. These deltaic sands and gravels grade distally into outwash sands and gravels.
TL;DR: Though conceptually applicable to many kinds of motion in geomorphology, the method is applied here to paths of volcanic ejecta in equatorial latitudes, an aspect of considerable importance with respect to transport of dust (volcanic and aeolian) and pollutants.
TL;DR: Hardy's multiquadric method is used as a basis for fitting irregular, continuous surfaces where z = f ( x, y ). Four stages are involved in the implementation of the method: (1) solution of a system of simultaneous, linear equations; (2) interpolation of new z values, using a multiquadrric equation, for any number of locations within the x, y domain of an initial sample space of points; (3) plots of all the z values at their respective locations to form a contour-like surface, but using color graphics instead of
TL;DR: In this paper, Hardy's multiquadric method of interpolation, using a cone model, was implemented to estimate and map speeds more fully for each cross-section of the Nottawasaga River.
Abstract: An electromagnetic current meter was used to obtain fluid speeds in a meander of the Nottawasaga River, Ontario The meter was placed at 3 m increments of width and at 010–045 m increments of depth in 13 cross-sections of the meander Hardy's multiquadric method of interpolation, using a cone model, was implemented to estimate and map speeds more fully for each cross-section The multiquadric system of equations was evaluated for a range of about 7–11 ( × 10 3 ) locations in each of nine shallow cross-sections in the upstream limb of the meander and for about 22–63( × 10 3 ) locations in each of four deeper sections in the downstream limb These evaluated speeds were grouped into colour-coded classes and plotted to show the distribution of speeds in each cross-section In all but two sections, there was one concentration of higher speeds which shifted towards the outer bank of the meander The other two sections had double concentrations of high speeds One section had a cluster at the surface, midstream and another at the bed, close to the outer bank In the second section, one cluster was at the surface close to the outer bank and the other was near the bed midstream, confirming the action of helical flow in the meander The mapping showed horizontal gradients of speed just as clearly as vertical and oblique gradients, especially where the talweg was close to the outer bank
23 Apr 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the relationship between Karst and general geomorphology and Hydrogeology and discuss the development of Karst underground systems, and present a detailed analysis of these systems.
Abstract: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO KARST. 1.1 Definitions. 1.2 The Relationship Between Karst And General Geomorphology And Hydrogeology. 1.3 The Global Distribution Of Karst. 1.4 The Growth Of Ideas. 1.5 Aims Of The Book. 1.6 Karst Terminology. CHAPTER 2. THE KARST ROCKS. 2.1 Carbonate Rocks And Minerals. 2.2 Limestone Compositions And Depositional Facies. 2.3 Limestone Diagenesis And The Formation Of Dolomite. 2.4 The Evaporite Rocks. 2.5. Quartzites And Siliceous Sandstones. 2.6 Effects Of Lithologic Properties Upon Karst Development. 2.7 Interbedded Clastic Rocks. 2.8 Bedding Planes, Joints, Faults And Fracture Traces. 2.9 Fold Topography. 2.10 Paleokarst Unconformities. CHAPTER 3. DISSOLUTION: CHEMICAL AND KINETIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE KARST ROCKS. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Aqueous Solutions And Chemical Equilibria. 3.3 The Dissolution Of Anhydrite, Gypsum And Salt. 3.4 The Dissolution Of Silica. 3.5 Bicarbonate Equilibria And The Dissolution Of Carbonate Rocks In Normal Meteoric Waters. 3.6 The S-O-H System And The Dissolution Of Carbonate Rocks. 3.7 Chemical Complications In Carbonate Dissolution. 3.8 Biokarst Processes. 3.9 Measurements In The Field And Lab Computer Programs. 3.10 Dissolution And Precipitation Kinetics Of Karst Rocks. CHAPTER 4. DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF KARST DENUDATION. 4.1 Global Variations In The Solutional Denudation Of Carbonate Terrains. 4.2 Measurement And Calculation Of Solutional Denudation Rates. 4.3 Solution Rates In Gypsum, Salt And Other Non-Carbonate Rocks. 4.4 Interpretation Of Measurements. CHAPTER 5. KARST HYDROLOGY. 5.1 Basic Hydrological Concepts, Terms And Definitions. 5.2 Controls On The Development Of Karst Hydrologic Systems. 5.3 Energy Supply And Flow Network Development. 5.4 Development Of The Water Table And Phreatic Zones. 5.5 Development Of The Vadose Zone. 5.6 Classification And Characteristics Of Karst Aquifers. 5.7 Applicability Of Darcy's Law To Karst. 5.8 The Fresh Water/Salt Water Interface. CHAPTER 6. ANALYSIS OF KARST DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. 6.1 The 'Grey Box' Nature Of Karst. 6.2 Surface Exploration And Survey Techniques. 6.3 Investigating Recharge And Percolation In The Vadose Zone. 6.4 Borehole Analysis. 6.5 Spring Hydrograph Analysis. 6.6 Polje Hydrograph Analysis. 6.7 Spring Chemograph Interpretation. 6.8 Storage Volumes And Flow Routing Under Different States Of The Hydrograph. 6.9 Interpreting The Organisation Of A Karst Aquifer. 6.10 Water Tracing Techniques. 6.11 Computer Modelling Of Karst Aquifers. CHAPTER 7. SPELEOGENESIS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAVE SYSTEMS. 7.1 Classifying Cave Systems. 7.2 Building The Plan Patterns Of Unconfined Caves. 7.3 Unconfined Cave Development In Length And Depth. 7.4 System Modifications Occurring Within A Single Phase. 7.5 Multi-Phase Cave Systems. 7.6 Meteoric Water Caves Developed Where There Is Confined Circulation Or Basal Injection Of Water. 7.7 Hypogene Caves: (A) Hydrothermal Caves Associated Chiefly With Co2. 7.8 Hypogene Caves: (B) Caves Formed By Waters Containing H2s. 7.9 Sea Coast Eogenetic Caves. 7.10 Passage Cross-Sections And Smaller Features Of Erosional Morphology. 7.11 Condensation, Condensation Corrosion, And Weathering In Caves. 7.12 Breakdown In Caves. CHAPTER 8. CAVE INTERIOR DEPOSITS. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Clastic Sediments. 8.3 Calcite, Aragonite And Other Carbonate Precipitates. 8.4 Other Cave Minerals. 8.5 Ice In Caves. 8.6 Dating Of Calcite Speleothems And Other Cave Deposits. 8.7 Paleo-Environmental Analysis Of Calcite Speleothems. 8.8 Mass Flux Through A Cave System: The Example Of Friar's Hole, W.Va. CHAPTER 9. KARST LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT IN HUMID REGIONS. 9.1 Coupled Hydrological And Geochemical Systems. 9.2 Small Scale Solution Sculpture - Microkarren And Karren. 9.3 Dolines - The 'Diagnostic' Karst Landform? 9.4 The Origin And Development Of Solution Dolines. 9.5 The Origin Of Collapse And Subsidence Depressions. 9.6 Polygonal Karst. 9.7 Morphometric Analysis Of Solution Dolines. 9.8 Landforms Associated With Allogenic Inputs. 9.9 Karst Poljes. 9.10 Corrosional Plains And Shifts In Baselevel. 9.11 Residual Hills On Karst Plains. 9.12 Depositional And Constructional Karst Features. 9.13 Special Features Of Evaporite Terrains. 9.14 Karstic Features Of Quartzose And Other Rocks. 9.15 Sequences Of Carbonate Karst Evolution In Humid Terrains. CHAPTER 10.THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON KARST DEVELOPMENT. 10.1 The Precepts Of Climatic Geomorphology. 10.2 The Hot Arid Extreme. 10.3 The Cold Extreme: 1 Karst Development In Glaciated Terrains. 10.4 The Cold Extreme: 2 Karst Development In Permafrozen Terrains. 10.5 Sea Level Changes, Tectonic Movement And Implications For Coastal Karst Development. 10.6 Polycyclic, Polygenetic And Exhumed Karsts. CHAPTER 11. KARST WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. 11.1 Water Resources And Sustainable Yields. 11.2 Determination Of Available Water Resources. 11.3 Karst Hydrogeological Mapping. 11.4 Human Impacts On Karst Water. 11.5 Groundwater Vulnerability, Protection, And Risk Mapping. 11.6 Dam Building, Leakages, Failures And Impacts. CHAPTER 12. HUMAN IMPACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION. 12.1 The Inherent Vulnerability Of Karst Systems. 12.2 Deforestation, Agricultural Impacts And Rocky Desertification. 12.3 Sinkholes Induced By De-Watering, Surcharging, Solution Mining And Other Practices On Karst. 12.4 Problems Of Construction On And In The Karst Rocks - Expect The Unexpected! 12.5 Industrial Exploitation Of Karst Rocks And Minerals. 12.6 Restoration Of Karstlands And Rehabilitation Of Limestone Quarries. 12.7 Sustainable Management Of Karst. 12.8 Scientific, Cultural And Recreational Values Of Karstlands.
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that a high-density, sand-bearing turbulent flood flow can be maintained in channels of relatively low gradient by the shear stress exerted by the high density, sandbearing turbulent flow above, which aids buoyancy and quasi-static grain-tograin contacts in the support of the clasts within the gravel carpet.
Abstract: Within high-density flood flows a prominent mechanism of gravel transport and deposition is by stream-driven, high-density traction carpet (with a rheology similar to grain flow). These gravel carpets are envisaged to form the basal portion of a bipartite high-density flood flow, decoupled from an overlying sand- and silt-laden turbulent flow. Several examples already documented in the literature are reviewed and an additional case from the Lower Old Red Sandstone of southwest Ireland is presented. Two mechanisms of traction carpet initiation are discussed: by rapid entrainment of gravel into suspension on rising stage, followed by settling into the gravel traction carpet at peak and falling stage; and by overconcentration of a ‘normal’, low-density bedload. Gravel entrainment, suspension and traction carpet development are significantly easier if the flood water already carries a high concentration of sand and silt in suspension. Theoretical consideration further shows that gravelly traction carpets can be maintained in channels of relatively low gradient by the shear stress exerted by the high-density, sand-bearing turbulent flood flow above. This tangential shear stress is converted to dispersive pressure, which aids buoyancy and quasi-static grain-to-grain contacts in the support of the clasts within the gravel carpet. The carpet is thought to have a quasi-plastic rheology but behave much like a viscous fluid at high shear rates. Stream-driven gravelly traction carpets are expected to produce sheet-like units of clast- to matrix-supported conglomerate, characterized by a parallel or an a(p)a(i) clast fabric. These units may be ungraded, normally or inversely graded, depending on the rate of shear, the viscosity of the flow and the celerity of deposition.
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of systematic flume experiments spanning a broad range of supercritical-flow bedforms (antidunes, chutes-and-pools and cyclic steps) developed in mobile sand beds of variable grain sizes are presented.
Abstract: Supercritical-flow phenomena are fairly common in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition and analysis remain difficult in the stratigraphic record. This fact is commonly ascribed to the poor preservation potential of deposits from high-energy supercritical flows. However, the number of flume data sets on supercritical-flow dynamics and sedimentary structures is very limited in comparison with available data for subcritical flows, which hampers the recognition and interpretation of such deposits. The results of systematic flume experiments spanning a broad range of supercritical-flow bedforms (antidunes, chutes-and-pools and cyclic steps) developed in mobile sand beds of variable grain sizes are presented. Flow character and related bedform patterns are constrained through time-series measurements of bed configurations, flow depths, flow velocities and Froude numbers. The results allow the refinement and extension of some widely used bedform stability diagrams in the supercritical-flow domain, clarifying in particular the morphodynamic relations between antidunes and cyclic steps. The onset of antidunes is controlled by flows exceeding a threshold Froude number. The transition from antidunes to cyclic steps in fine to medium-grained sand occurs at a threshold mobility parameter. Sedimentary structures associated with supercritical bedforms developed under variable aggradation rates are revealed by means of combining flume results and synthetic stratigraphy. The sedimentary structures are compared with examples from field and other flume studies. Aggradation rate is seen to exert an important control on the geometry of supercritical-flow structures and should be considered when identifying supercritical bedforms in the sedimentary record.
TL;DR: The Suwolbong pyroclastic sequence in the western part of Cheju Island, Korea, comprises partly preserved rim beds of a Quaternary basaltic tuff ring whose vent lies about 1 km seaward of the present shoreline.
Abstract: The Suwolbong pyroclastic sequence in the western part of Cheju Island, Korea, comprises partly preserved rim beds of a Quaternary basaltic tuff ring whose vent lies about 1 km seaward of the present shoreline. The sequence consists of breccia, lapillistone, lapilli tuff and tuff. Eighteen sedimentary facies are established and organized into six lateral facies sequences (LFS) and seven vertical facies sequences (VFS). The LFS 1, 4 and 5 begin with massive lapilli tuff which transforms downcurrent into either planar-bedded (LFS 1), undulatory-bedded (LFS 4) or climbing dune-bedded (LFS 5) (lapilli) tuff units. They are representative of relatively ‘dry’ base surge whose particle concentration decreases downcurrent with a progressive increase in both tractional processes and sorting. The LFS 2 begins with disorganized and massive lapilli tuff and transforms into crudely stratified units downcurrent. It results from relatively ‘wet’ base surge in which sorting is poor due to the cohesion of damp ash. The LFS 3 comprises well-sorted lapilli tuff and stratified tuff further downcurrent, suggestive of deposition from combined fall and surge of relatively ‘dry’ hydroclastic eruption. All seven vertical facies sequences generally comprise two facies units of coarse-grained fines-depleted lapilli tuff and an overlying fine-grained tuff. These sequences are suggestive of deposition from base surge that consists of a turbulent head and a low-concentration tail. Depositional processes in the Suwolbong tuff ring were dominated by a relatively ‘dry’ base surge. The base surge comprises turbulent and high-concentration suspension near the vent whose deposits are generally unstratified due to the lack of tractional transport. As the base surge becomes diluted downcurrent through fallout of clasts and mixing of ambient air, it develops large-scale turbulent eddies and is segregated into coarse-grained bedload and overlying fine-grained suspension forming thinly stratified units. Further downcurrent, the base surge may be either cooled and deflated or pushed up into the air, depending on its temperature. The Suwolbong tuff ring comprises an overall wet-to-dry cycle with several dry-to-wet cycles in it, suggestive of overall decrease in abundance of external water and fluctuation in the rate of magma rise.