Howard C. Berg
Other affiliations: Pasteur Institute, Rowland Institute for Science, California Institute of Technology ...read more
Bio: Howard C. Berg is an academic researcher from Harvard University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Chemotaxis & Protein filament. The author has an hindex of 82, co-authored 212 publications receiving 31233 citations. Previous affiliations of Howard C. Berg include Pasteur Institute & Rowland Institute for Science.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: This book is a lucid, straightforward introduction to the concepts and techniques of statistical physics that students of biology, biochemistry, and biophysics must know.
Abstract: This book is a lucid, straightforward introduction to the concepts and techniques of statistical physics that students of biology, biochemistry, and biophysics must know. It provides a sound basis for understanding random motions of molecules, subcellular particles, or cells, or of processes that depend on such motion or are markedly affected by it. Readers do not need to understand thermodynamics in order to acquire a knowledge of the physics involved in diffusion, sedimentation, electrophoresis, chromatography, and cell motility--subjects that become lively and immediate when the author discusses them in terms of random walks of individual particles.
TL;DR: Chemotaxis toward amino-acids results from the suppression of directional changes which occur spontaneously in isotropic solutions.
Abstract: Chemotaxis toward amino-acids results from the suppression of directional changes which occur spontaneously in isotropic solutions.
TL;DR: The chemotactic sensitivity of Escherichia coli approaches that of the cell of optimum design, and data on bacteriophage absorption, bacterial chemotaxis, and chemoattractant in a cellular slime mold are evaluated.
Abstract: Statistical fluctuations limit the precision with which a microorganism can, in a given time T, determine the concentration of a chemoattractant in the surrounding medium. The best a cell can do is to monitor continually the state of occupation of receptors distributed over its surface. For nearly optimum performance only a small fraction of the surface need be specifically adsorbing. The probability that a molecule that has collided with the cell will find a receptor is Ns/(Ns + pi a), if N receptors, each with a binding site of radius s, are evenly distributed over a cell of radius a. There is ample room for many indenpendent systems of specific receptors. The adsorption rate for molecules of moderate size cannot be significantly enhanced by motion of the cell or by stirring of the medium by the cell. The least fractional error attainable in the determination of a concentration c is approximately (TcaD) - 1/2, where D is diffusion constant of the attractant. The number of specific receptors needed to attain such precision is about a/s. Data on bacteriophage absorption, bacterial chemotaxis, and chemotaxis in a cellular slime mold are evaluated. The chemotactic sensitivity of Escherichia coli approaches that of the cell of optimum design.
TL;DR: Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, swim by rotating thin helical filaments, each driven at its base by a reversible rotary motor, powered by an ion flux.
Abstract: Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, swim by rotating thin helical filaments, each driven at its base by a reversible rotary motor, powered by an ion flux. A motor is about 45 nm in diameter and is assembled from about 20 different kinds of parts. It develops maximum torque at stall but can spin several hundred Hz. Its direction of rotation is controlled by a sensory system that enables cells to accumulate in regions deemed more favorable. We know a great deal about motor structure, genetics, assembly, and function, but we do not really understand how it works. We need more crystal structures. All of this is reviewed, but the emphasis is on function.
TL;DR: It is shown here that existing evidence favours a model in which each filament rotates, which is commonly believed that each filament propagates a helical wave3.
Abstract: IT is widely agreed that bacteria swim by moving their flagella, but how this motion is generated remains obscure1,2. A flagellum has a helical filament, a proximal hook, and components at its base associated with the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane. If there are several flagella per cell, the filaments tend to form bundles and to move in unison. When viewed by high-speed cinematography, the bundles show a screw-like motion. It is commonly believed that each filament propagates a helical wave3. We will show here that existing evidence favours a model in which each filament rotates.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: Findings in this work indicate that dopaminergic neurons in the primate whose fluctuating output apparently signals changes or errors in the predictions of future salient and rewarding events can be understood through quantitative theories of adaptive optimizing control.
Abstract: The capacity to predict future events permits a creature to detect, model, and manipulate the causal structure of its interactions with its environment. Behavioral experiments suggest that learning is driven by changes in the expectations about future salient events such as rewards and punishments. Physiological work has recently complemented these studies by identifying dopaminergic neurons in the primate whose fluctuating output apparently signals changes or errors in the predictions of future salient and rewarding events. Taken together, these findings can be understood through quantitative theories of adaptive optimizing control.
TL;DR: This chapter discusses preparation of isolated rat liver cells by incubation of rat liver minces with pronase, which results in most of the liver parenchyma is digested, while nonparenchymal cells remain intact and can be recovered from the incubate.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses preparation of isolated rat liver cells The early mechanical and chemical methods for liver-cell preparation were relatively successful in converting liver tissue to a suspension of isolated cells The successful preparation of intact liver cells by perfusion with collagenase is technically quite difficult The major method for preparation of nonparenchymal liver cells is based on the selective sensitivity of parenchymal cells toward proteases By incubation of rat liver minces with pronase, most of the liver parenchyma is digested, while nonparenchymal cells remain intact and can be recovered from the incubate Similar results have been reported with trypsin digestion of collagenase-dispersed liver minces, but pronase appears to be more effective The most common procedure is to perfuse the liver briefly with pronase before it is minced and incubated with the enzyme Such direct pronase methods have been used by several investigators with yields of nonparenchymal liver cells reported to be in the range 2–15 × 10 6 cells/gm liver
TL;DR: The tight regulation of the PBAD promoter is exploited to study the phenotypes of null mutations of essential genes and the use of pBAD vectors as an expression system is explored.
Abstract: We have constructed a series of plasmid vectors (pBAD vectors) containing the PBAD promoter of the araBAD (arabinose) operon and the gene encoding the positive and negative regulator of this promoter, araC. Using the phoA gene and phoA fusions to monitor expression in these vectors, we show that the ratio of induction/repression can be 1,200-fold, compared with 50-fold for PTAC-based vectors. phoA expression can be modulated over a wide range of inducer (arabinose) concentrations and reduced to extremely low levels by the presence of glucose, which represses expression. Also, the kinetics of induction and repression are very rapid and significantly affected by the ara allele in the host strain. Thus, the use of this system which can be efficiently and rapidly turned on and off allows the study of important aspects of bacterial physiology in a very simple manner and without changes of temperature. We have exploited the tight regulation of the PBAD promoter to study the phenotypes of null mutations of essential genes and explored the use of pBAD vectors as an expression system.