Bio: Howard Riley is an academic researcher from University of Wales, Trinity Saint David. The author has contributed to research in topics: Semiotics & Dyslexia. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 43 publications receiving 319 citations. Previous affiliations of Howard Riley include University of Wales & Swansea Metropolitan University.
TL;DR: This paper found that poor drawing may be a particular problem for students with dyslexia (and a high proportion of art school students is dyslexic), and that poor drawers are less good at copying simple angles and proportions.
Abstract: Some art students, despite being at art school, cannot draw very well, and would like to be able to draw well. It has been suggested that poor drawing may be a particular problem for students with dyslexia (and a high proportion of art school students is dyslexic). In Study 1 we studied 277 art students, using a questionnaire to assess self-perceived drawing ability and a range of background measures, including demography, education, a history of dyslexia, a self-administered spelling test, and personality and educational variables. In Study 2 we gave detailed drawing tests to a sample of 38 of the art students, stratified by self-rated drawing ability and spelling ability, and to 30 control participants. Students perceiving themselves as good at drawing did indeed draw better than self-perceived poor drawers, although the latter were still better than non-art student controls. In neither Study 1 nor Study 2 did skill at drawing relate to dyslexia or spelling ability, and neither did drawing ability relate to any of our wide range of background measures. However Study 2 did show that drawing ability was related both to ability at copying simple angles and proportions (using the “house” task of Cain, 1943), and also to visual memory (as suggested by Jones, 1922), poor drawers being less good at both immediate and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure.
TL;DR: The findings corroborate the findings of small-scale fMRI studies and provide insights into the properties of the developing artistic brain.
TL;DR: Assessment of local and global visual processing ability in art students and controls found that the relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability.
Abstract: Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image. Local and global visual processing ability was assessed in art students and controls using the Group Embedded Figures Task, Navon shape stimuli, the Block Design Task and the Autism Spectrum Quotient, whilst controlling for nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. Local processing biases associated with drawing appear to arise from an enhancement of local processing alongside successful filtering of global information, rather than a reduction in global processing. The relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. These findings have implications for bottom-up and attentio...
TL;DR: In this paper, the extent of shape constancy (phenomenal regression) correlates with drawing ability, there being a "robust negative relation between perceptual errors resulting from shape-constancy and drawing accuracy".
Abstract: People vary in their ability to make accurate representational drawings. Cohen and Jones (2008) have suggested that individuals who draw poorly have problems in the perception of objects, so that the extent of shape constancy (phenomenal regression) correlates with drawing ability, there being a "robust negative relation between perceptual errors resulting from shape constancy and drawing accuracy". In this study we describe two attempts to replicate that finding, in Study 1 in 30 non-art students, and in Study 2 in 106 art students. Study 1 found a correlation that was statistically significant, but in the opposite direction to that reported by Cohen and Jones, and in Study 2 the correlation was very close to zero. Combining these results meta-analytically with those of Cohen and Jones finds a non- significant correlation. Taken overall, these findings throw doubt on the Cohen and Jones' hypothesis that those with less phenomenal regression have better representational drawing ability.
TL;DR: It is suggested that there is relatively little plasticity in face recognition in adulthood, at which point the authors' substantial everyday experience with faces may have pushed us to the limits of their capabilities.
Abstract: Across 2 studies, the authors asked whether extensive experience in portrait art is associated with face recognition ability. In Study 1, 64 students completed a standardized face recognition test before and after completing a year-long art course that included substantial portraiture training. They found no evidence of an improvement in face recognition after training over and above what would be expected by practice alone. In Study 2, the authors investigated the possibility that more extensive experience might be needed for such advantages to emerge, by testing a cohort of expert portrait artists (N = 28), all of whom had many years of experience. In addition to memory for faces, they also explored memory for abstract art and for words in a paired-associate recognition test. The expert portrait artists performed similarly to a large, normative comparison sample on memory for faces and words but showed a small advantage for abstract art. Taken together, the results converge with existing literature to suggest that there is relatively little plasticity in face recognition in adulthood, at which point our substantial everyday experience with faces may have pushed us to the limits of our capabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record
01 Jan 1966
TL;DR: Koestler as mentioned in this paper examines the idea that we are at our most creative when rational thought is suspended, for example, in dreams and trancelike states, and concludes that "the act of creation is the most creative act in human history".
Abstract: While the study of psychology has offered little in the way of explaining the creative process, Koestler examines the idea that we are at our most creative when rational thought is suspended--for example, in dreams and trancelike states. All who read The Act of Creation will find it a compelling and illuminating book.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: Fawcett, M.K.Halliday, Sydney M. Lamb and Adam Makkai as discussed by the authors presented a systemic-functional interpretation of the nature and ontogenesis of dialogue.
Abstract: List of Figures List of Tables Foreword Introduction Robin P. Fawcett, M.A.K. Halliday, Sydney M. Lamb and Adam Makkai 1 Language as Code and Language as Behaviour: A Systemic-Functional Interpretation of the Nature and Ontogenesis of Dialogue M.A.K. Halliday 2 Metaphors of Information John Regan 3 How Universal is a Localist Hypothesis? A Linguistic Contribution to the Study of 'Semantic Styles' of Language Yoshihiko Ikegami 4 Some Speculations on Language Contact in a Wider Setting Jeffrey Ellis 5 Ways of Saying: Ways of Meaning Ruqaiya Hasan Index
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent.
Abstract: This is the first handbook where the world’s foremost “experts on expertise” review our scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent. Methods are described for the study of experts’ knowledge and their performance of representative tasks from their domain of expertise. The development of expertise is also studied by retrospective interviews and the daily lives of experts are studied with diaries. In 15 major domains of expertise, the leading researchers summarize our knowledge of the structure and acquisition of expert skill and knowledge and discuss future prospects. General issues that cut across most domains are reviewed in chapters on various aspects of expertise, such as general and practical intelligence, differences in brain activity, self-regulated learning, deliberate practice, aging, knowledge management, and creativity.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The the senses considered as perceptual systems is universally compatible with any devices to read, and is available in the book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you for downloading the senses considered as perceptual systems. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have search hundreds times for their favorite novels like this the senses considered as perceptual systems, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they juggled with some malicious bugs inside their desktop computer. the senses considered as perceptual systems is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our books collection hosts in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the the senses considered as perceptual systems is universally compatible with any devices to read.