Other affiliations: University of Orléans
Bio: Howard Sidebottom is an academic researcher from University College Dublin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Reaction rate constant & Radical. The author has an hindex of 25, co-authored 82 publications receiving 2562 citations. Previous affiliations of Howard Sidebottom include University of Orléans.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A review of the state of the art in the field of chemistry of the NO 3 radical is presented in this paper, with a focus on the relationship between the laboratory and the atmospheric studies.
Abstract: This review surveys the present state of knowledge of the nitrate (NO 3 radical. Laboratory data on the physics and chemistry of the radical and atmospheric determination of the concentrations of the radical are both considered. One aim of the review is to highlight the relationship between the laboratory and the atmospheric studies. Although the emphasis of the review is on gas-phase processes, relevant studies conducted in condensed phases are mentioned because of their potential importance in the interpretation of cloud and aerosol chemistry. The spectroscopy, structure, and photochemistry of the radical are examined. Here, the object is to establich the spectroscopic basis for detection of the radical and measurement of its concentration in the laboratory and in the atmosphere. Infrared, visible, and paramagnetic resonance spectra are considered. An important quantity discussed is the absorption cross section in the visible region, which is required for quantitative measurements. Interpretation of the spectroscopic features requires an understanding of the geometrical and electronic structure of the radical in its ground and excited states; there is still some controversy about the groundstate geometry, but the most recent experimental evidence 9eg from laser induced fluorescence) and theoretical calculations suggest that the radical has D 3h symmetry. Photodissociation of the radical is important in the atmosphere, and the product channels, quantum yields, and dissociation dynamics are discussed. A short examination of the thermodynamics (heat and entropy of formation) of the radical is presented. The main exposition of laboratory studies of the chemistry of the nitrate radical is preceded by a consideration of the techniques used for kinetic and mechanistic studies. Methods for the generation and detection of the radical and the kinetic tools employed are all presented. The exact nature of the technique used in individual studies has some relevance to the way in which data must be analysed, and to the type of mechanistic information that can be extracted. Continuous and stopped flow, flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis, molecular modulation, and static reactor techniques can all provide absolute kinetic data, while relative rate measurements have been a further rich source of information. The treatment of the chemical reactions of the nitrate radical is formally divided into the interactions with non-radical inorganic (deemed to include NO and NO 2 ) and organic species, and with atoms and free radicals. In general, the reactions with open-shell species are much more rapid than those with closed-shell reactants. With the closed-shell partners, addition reactions are faster than abstraction reactions. An attempt is made to consider critically the published data on most reactions of importance, and to tabulate rate constants and temperature dependences where possible. However, it is not the objective of this review to provide recommendations for rate parameters. Evidence for the products of the reactions is sought, and for the branching ratios into the various channels where more than one exists. One theme of this part of the review is the elucidation of correlations of reactivity with structure and with the reactions of other radical species such as OH. The review turns next to a consideration of the role of NO 3 in the atmosphere, of its atmospheric sources and sinks, and of field measurements of concentrations of the radical. Long-path visible-absorption spectroscopy and matrix-isolation ESR have both been used successfully in field measurements in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. Balloon-borne instruments and ground-based remote sensing have been used to obtain stratospheric concentrations. Two of the most important implications of the measurements are that the stratospheric profiles are consistent with accepted chemistry (and, in particular, do not require the postulation of an unidentified scavenging mechanism that had, at one stage, been proposed), and that the highly variable night-time tropospheric concentrations imply that NO 3 is a reactive tropospheric constituent. The inter-relation between laboratory studies and atmospheric observations, and the problems in extrapolating laboratory data to atmospheric conditions, are both explored. Initiation of night-time chemical transformations by NO 3 and the possible production of OH are considered. The available information is then brought together to see how far NO 3 is a sensitive indicator of the state of the atmosphere, and some speculations are presented about the involvement of NO 3 (or N 2 O 5 ) in damage to trees and plants. The final section of the review suggests some issues that remain unresolved concerning the NO 3 radical which is directly or indirectly relevant to a better knowledge of the part played by the radical in the atmosphere. Amongst the requirements noted are improved data for the heat of formation of the radical, its absorption cross section in the visible region (and, especially, the temperature dependence of the cross section), and the details of its photochemistry. There is also still a need for a definitive determination of the equilibrium constant and its temperature dependence for the association with NO 2 and the reverse dissociation of N 2 O 5 . A series of chemical reactions deserves further investigation, especially with regard to elucidation of product channels, and overall oxidation mechanisms also need to be defined better. Future atmospheric studies that are desirable include study of basic NO 3 chemistry in the field to understand the influence of humidity on the conversion (probably on surfaces) of N 2 O 5 to HNO 3 , and thus on NO 3 concentrations. In addition, a study of the chemistry of NO 3 in the presence of volatile organic compounds and at elevated concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen should help in the understanding of, for example, polluted marine coasts, forests, and urban areas.
TL;DR: In this article, the rate constants for the gas phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals and chlorine atoms with aliphatic alcohols and ethers were determined at 298 ± 2 K and at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere.
Abstract: Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals and chlorine atoms with aliphatic alcohols and ethers have been determined at 298 ± 2 K and at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere. The OH radical rate data were obtained using both the absolute technique of pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic UV spectroscopy and a conventional photolytic relative rate method. The Cl atom rate constants were measured using only the relative rate method. Values of the rate constants in units of 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 are: The above relative rate constants are based on the values of (OH + c-C6H12) = 7.49 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and (Cl + c-C6H12) = 311 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. Attempts to corre late the trends in the rate constant data in terms of the bond dissociation energies and inductive effects are discussed.
TL;DR: A very considerable body of data pertaining to the atmospheric behaviour of HCFCs and chlorinated solvents is now available and leads to the follow- ing conclusions: (a) these compounds, with the exception of 1,l,I -trichloroethane, make a small or insignificant contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion, global warming, photo-chemical smog, acid rain, or chloride and fluoride levels in precipitation; (b) it seems highly unlikely that the chlorinated Solvents degrade in the atmosphere to give chloroacetic acids as major prod
Abstract: A very considerable body of data pertaining to the atmospheric behaviour of hydro- chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorinated solvents is now available and leads to the follow- ing conclusions: (a) these compounds, with the exception of 1 ,l ,I -trichloroethane, make a small or insignificant contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion, global warming, 'photo-chemical smog', 'acid rain', or chloride and fluoride levels in precipitation; (b) it seems highly unlikely that the chlorinated solvents degrade in the atmosphere to give chloroacetic acids as major prod- ucts, as has often been claimed in the literature.
••01 Mar 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of ozone with a series of alkenes have been determined using a conventional static system, and the Arrhenius parameters obtained are discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships.
Abstract: Rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of ozone with a series of alkenes have been determined using a conventional static system. Ozone loss was monitored in excess of the hydrocarbon and rate data measured at 1 atmosphere total pressure over the temperature range 240–324 K. The Arrhenius parameters obtained are discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships. Product studies have been carried out for the reaction of O3 with the conjugated dienes, 1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene) and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene in air. The results provide information on the decomposition pathways for the primary ozonides and the relative importance of ozone addition to the two double-bonds in isoprene.
Harvard University1, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne2, College of William & Mary3, Old Dominion University4, University of Lisbon5, University of Burgundy6, California Institute of Technology7, Centre national de la recherche scientifique8, Université catholique de Louvain9, University of York10, University College London11, National Institute of Standards and Technology12, University of Waterloo13, National Center for Atmospheric Research14, University of Cologne15, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology16, Langley Research Center17
TL;DR: The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, added line-shape formalisms, and validity, and molecules, isotopologues, and perturbing gases have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth.
Abstract: This paper describes the contents of the 2016 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2012 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is composed of five major components: the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, collision-induced absorption data, aerosol indices of refraction, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, added line-shape formalisms, and validity. Moreover, molecules, isotopologues, and perturbing gases have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Of considerable note, experimental IR cross-sections for almost 300 additional molecules important in different areas of atmospheric science have been added to the database. The compilation can be accessed through www.hitran.org. Most of the HITRAN data have now been cast into an underlying relational database structure that offers many advantages over the long-standing sequential text-based structure. The new structure empowers the user in many ways. It enables the incorporation of an extended set of fundamental parameters per transition, sophisticated line-shape formalisms, easy user-defined output formats, and very convenient searching, filtering, and plotting of data. A powerful application programming interface making use of structured query language (SQL) features for higher-level applications of HITRAN is also provided.
TL;DR: In this paper, an update to the previous protocol is presented, which has been used to define degradation schemes for 107 non-aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3).
Abstract: . Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and the production of secondary pollutants, have previously been used to define a protocol which underpinned the construction of a near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism. In this paper, an update to the previous protocol is presented, which has been used to define degradation schemes for 107 non-aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3). The treatment of 18 aromatic VOC is described in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the reactions of the radical intermediates and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on updating the previous information, and outlining the methodology which is specifically applicable to VOC not considered previously (e.g. a - and b -pinene). The present protocol aims to take into consideration work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Application of MCM v3 in appropriate box models indicates that the representation of isoprene degradation provides a good description of the speciated distribution of oxygenated organic products observed in reported field studies where isoprene was the dominant emitted hydrocarbon, and that the a -pinene degradation chemistry provides a good description of the time dependence of key gas phase species in a -pinene/NOX photo-oxidation experiments carried out in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE). Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) have been calculated for the 106 non-aromatic non-methane VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. Where applicable, the values are compared with those calculated with previous versions of the MCM.
TL;DR: The most recent review and evaluation of Atkinson [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 26, No. 3 (1997) and as mentioned in this paper concerning the gas phase reactions of alkanes and alkenes (including isoprene and monoterpenes) leading to their first generation products are reviewed and evaluated for tropospheric conditions.
Abstract: Literature data (through mid-1996) concerning the gas-phase reactions of alkanes and alkenes (including isoprene and monoterpenes) leading to their first generation products are reviewed and evaluated for tropospheric conditions. The recommendations of the most recent IUPAC evaluation [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 26, No. 3 (1997)] are used for the ⩽C3 organic compounds, unless more recent data necessitates reevaluation. The most recent review and evaluation of Atkinson [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 2, 1 (1994)] concerning the kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals, NO3 radicals, and O3 is also updated for these two classes of volatile organic compounds.