Bio: Hristina Cipusheva is an academic researcher from South East European University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Emigration & Public policy. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 6 publications receiving 28 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the relationship between the quality of life, social exclusion, and policies towards regional and local economic development in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and provided a detailed picture of the situation facing households across regions.
Abstract: The paper focuses on regional disparities in the quality of life in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia It explores the relationship between the quality of life, social exclusion, and policies towards regional and local economic development The paper is based on a household survey carried out in August 2008 which provides a detailed picture of the situation facing households across regions Overall, the survey shows that there are large regional disparities in life satisfaction, indicating an important role for regional policy in improving the life experience of people living in the most deprived parts of the country The paper concludes with a number of recommendations for improving the focus of regional policies to ensure a higher quality of life in the deprived regions of Macedonia
TL;DR: Rizvi et al. as discussed by the authors focused on three countries of the Western Balkans: Albania, Macedonia, and Kosovo, and focused on two important subsets of the skilled population of each country: students and skilled returnees.
Abstract: Countries of the Western Balkans constitute an important part of the contemporary system of migration. Three important factors shape the current migration ﬂows in the region: the socialist legacy, existing migrant networks, and migration policies, mainly of the receiving countries. This study focuses on three countries of the Western Balkans: Albania, Macedonia, and Kosovo. Unlike nationals of Albania, whence exit was near impossible, citizens of Macedonia and Kosovo, being constituent parts of the former Yugoslavia, enjoyed relative freedom of movement across Europe and they have traditionally been source countries of labor migration. The collapse of the socio-economic and political order that attended upon the breakup of the former Yugoslavia was accompanied by ethnic conflicts of the 1990s, high unemployment, and general impoverishment of large sections of the population. These factors, coupled with the onset of transition to a market economy, further strengthened the networks of labor migration throughout Europe that were created by nationals of the Western Balkan. The refugee regimes and immigration policies of major destination countries of the OECD played a significant role in this process. Today, many of these countries contain the bulk of the diaspora from the Western Balkans, including the three countries under study.1. 2 Objectives and Scope of the Study The overall objective of this research is to offer interested readers and policymakers an insight into the dynamics of skill migration and brain circulation within the Western Balkans-OCED corridor. The study focuses on three countries of the Western Balkans: Albania, Macedonia, and Kosovo. To achieve the overall objective, we begin by offering a synopsis of the size, nature, and characteristics of the skilled diaspora from the three countries drawing upon all available information. The study then focuses upon two important subsets of the skilled population of each country: students and skilled returnees. Specifically, we target pre-final and final year students at the tertiary level as they are expected to be highly outwardly mobile and thus ideally suited to study the phenomenon of skill migration, and, a fortiori, as the number of students studying outside the countries of their origin has been increasing rapidly over the last quarter of a century -- from less than half a million in the mid-1980s to almost three million by 2011 (Rizvi, 2011). Consequently, international student mobility is increasingly recognized to be the most important vehicle of brain circulation between the developing south and the developed north. Similarly, given the interest of policy-makers in brain gain, the study targets the skilled subset of return migrants. Thus, the study seeks to answer two important research questions: 1. What motivates tertiary level students to migrate from the country of origin and what is the potential of migration from the selected countries of the Western Balkans? 2. Why do some highly skilled members of the Diasporas return home, and what obstacles and opportunities await them upon return? The study tackles the above questions utilizing all available information, and, more importantly, by collecting primary data using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study further seeks to contribute to our cumulative knowledge in the field of brain drain/gain/circulation by identifying common patterns among the Albanian, the Macedonian, and the Kosovar skilled returnees and would-be student migrants. Finally, the study aims to discuss the policy implications of the observed patterns of emigration and return migration for leveraging the skilled diaspora for development.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine patterns of migration and remittances (including in-kind and other informal transfers) based on a household survey that is representative of the whole country as well as of different regions of the country.
Abstract: There are two particular contributions that we seek to make to the scholarship on migration and remittances in Republic of Macedonia. First, we examine patterns of migration and remittances (including in-kind and other informal transfers) based on a household survey that is representative of the whole country as well as of different regions of the country. Second, the report compares the patterns of migration and remittances between two main ethnic groups, i.e., Albanians and Macedonians. The analysis is expected to have significant policy implications.
TL;DR: In this paper, the microfinance perceptions in the country are examined based on a survey that gives answers to a set of questions related to the general characteristics of the poor households, their problems, needs, savings, borrowing and financial exclusion.
Abstract: This study is conveyed in order to examine the microfinance perceptions in the country based on a survey that gives answers to a set of questions related to the general characteristics of the poor households, their problems, needs, savings, borrowing and financial exclusion.The findings underline some issues concerning the availability of financial resources offered by the financial institutions in RM to the citizens, with particular focus on microfinance and its use for improvement of the financial and economic situation of the citizens.The results show very low consumption of the financial institutions’ offer in the country. In addition, the concept of microfinance is not widely known by the people in Republic of Macedonia – just 2% in the sample have borrowed from MFI.As a result, a number of policy issues should be considered by MFIs and the government egarding the improvement of the outreach, the impact, and the legal background of the concept of microfinance in order to offer the citizens better availability to microcredits and loans.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze the management of grants from the central government (block grants, earmarked grants and capital transfers) and the compliance with the principles of good governance in the Municipality of Chair, Krushevo, Jegunovce, and Konche.
Abstract: The active participation of citizens in the design, the implementation and the monitoring of development is an essential element in providing quality services at the local level. Their role is important in the process of effective governance, strengthening the civil society access to important public information, and providing opportunities for disadvantaged groups to contribute to policy making and to provide social services to people's needs. It is particularly important that the civil society can play the role of the controller in monitoring and evaluating the local policies and programs, signifying their politicians and service providers responsible for the delivery of the essential local services with good quality and fair manner.This study focuses on the analysis of the citizens’ satisfaction with the quality of delivery of decentralized services and the appropriate sources of funding available to implement them in four municipalities in Republic of Macedonia. The main goal is to analyze the management of grants from the central government (block grants, earmarked grants and capital transfers) and the compliance with the principles of good governance in the Municipality of Chair, Krushevo, Jegunovce, and Konche.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: The 1995 UN Conference on Women held in Beijing China and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum as discussed by the authors was a seminal event in women's empowerment and women empowerment.
Abstract: This news article reports on the events occurring and the views taken at the 1995 UN Conference on Women held in Beijing China and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum. The setting in China for this decennially occurring conference was appropriate for the discussion of womens rights. Despite the selective coverage of the conference by Chinese official reports word would trickle out in whispers to Chinese women about some new ideas. Chinese visa restrictions on participants of the NGO Forum forced many women to devise ingenious ways of gaining entrance to the meetings. The alliance between the Holy See and Islam disciples threatened to undermine basic goals of conference to open up access to contraception and to change property rights. The conference chair diplomatically found justification for praise of unpopular views despite the disputes among a majority of delegates. The aim of the conference was to obtain a common understanding of some basic rights and not 100% agreement. Womens economic contributions have not been recognized in gross domestic product calculations. The World Bank has reported that about $13 billion is unaccounted for income and unwaged income of which about $8.5 billion is due to womens productivity. Women expressed the desire for recognition of their economic contribution. Since the last womens conference held in Nairobi in 1985 there has been an increase in world poverty. Uganda expends more on servicing its debt than on health and education. There was general agreement that gender equity was a goal but there was less consensus on how to achieve it.
TL;DR: Free Trade Today as mentioned in this paper is a sequel to Protectionism, an equally short, accessible, wide-ranging work that brings the case for free trade to the skeptics and the critics today.
Abstract: None of the usual jokes about economists apply to Jagdish Bhagwati. The Columbia University professor is as personable, charming, and provocative in print as he is in person, and all those attributes shine through in his new book, Free Trade Today. Bhagwati’s latest book is based on three lectures he delivered recently at the Stockholm School of Economics. That is the same venue where he gave another series of lectures on trade in the late 1980s that became the book Protectionism, a minor classic in the bibliography of free trade. This new book, Bhagwati tells us in the preface, is “a sequel to Protectionism, an equally short, accessible, wide-ranging work that brings the case for free trade to the skeptics and the critics today.” In the first section of the book, Bhagwati explains why free trade is still the first best policy despite two centuries of theoretical challenges. Economists have known since the 1840s that a nation can improve its welfare, in theory at least, by deviating from free trade. If a nation has enough weight in international markets, it can (in theory) force down global prices with a tariff, extracting more producer and revenue gain from the rest of the world than it gives up in lost efficiency or consumer welfare. Or it can (again, in theory) nurture “infant industries” behind a tariff wall to reap greater productivity gains later. In more recent years, we discovered “strategic trade policy,” the idea that a country could (once again, in theory) benefit by protecting a strategic industry that could then bring home monopoly profits in the global marketplace. Most of the justifications for deviating from free trade fit under the banner of “market failure.” Free trade would be fine in an ideal world of perfectly competitive markets, the theorists concede, but we all know that markets are hardly ever perfect, and thus free trade is hardly ever the best policy. Bhagwati spends most of this short but pithy book demonstrating that even in this messy, imperfect world, free trade remains, almost always and everywhere, the best policy.
05 Dec 2014
TL;DR: The authorities should expand existing training initiatives on racist and homotransphobic violence for members of law enforcement agencies and the judiciary, as well as in any further judicial proceedings.
Abstract: The authorities should expand existing training initiatives on racist and homotransphobic violence for members of law enforcement agencies and the judiciary. Possible bias motivations should consistently be included in police reports and investigations, as well as in any further judicial proceedings. In order to address the problem of underreporting the authorities should implement confidence-building measures to enhance the relationship between the police and vulnerable groups, in particular the LGBT community.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the impact of remittances versus financial development on the economic growth of the two countries, complementing the burgeoning interest and focus on remittance for policy.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan and Macedonia have experienced a reasonable increase in remittances over the last twenty-five years. Subsequently, the extent to which remittances can be instrumental for economic development of the two countries has gained serious attention in recent development dialogues. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of remittances versus financial development on the economic growth of the two counties, complementing the burgeoning interest and focus on remittances for policy. The short-run and the long-run effects and the causality dynamics of remittances and financial development, are explored. The results show a long-run positive impact of remittances on the economic growth of these countries. The impact of financial development is negative, significant only for Kyrgyzstan and not statistically significant for Macedonia. The causality results show that remittances support economic growth for Kyrgyzstan, whereas economic growth appears to propel remittances for Macedonia.
TL;DR: This article found that while immigrants are less satisfied than natives, this difference can be explained by factors related to economic integration, such as the details of their employment conditions, rather than cultural factors such as feelings of not belonging, which often loom large in the public mind.
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that migrants may be less satisfied with their ‘new’ lives than members of the host population and worry that this may be driven by cultural factors, such as feelings of not belonging. Motivated by this concern, this paper analyses the life satisfaction of immigrants once settled in the host country. We rely on the German Socio-Economic Panel’s immigrant sample for the years 1984–2010 and find that while immigrants are less satisfied than natives, this difference can be explained by factors related to economic integration, such as the details of their employment conditions, rather than cultural factors such as feelings of not belonging, which often loom large in the public mind. JEL codes: J15, K37, O15