Other affiliations: Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan
Bio: Huma Ali is an academic researcher from Bacha Khan University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Chemistry & Ajuga. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 21 publications receiving 450 citations. Previous affiliations of Huma Ali include Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan.
TL;DR: In vitro antibacterial screening showed that 6 extracts from garlic had different ranges of antibacterial activities, and butanol extracted sample showed highest activity against Erwinia carotovora.
Abstract: -1 ) of each extract were subjected for preliminary antibacterial screening against seven pathogenic bacteria by Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion method. The result of in vitro antibacterial screening showed that 6 extracts from garlic had different ranges of antibacterial activities. When garlic extracts were studied for their antibacterial potential against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, the butanol extracted samples showed the highest inhibitory effect against B. cereus (76% ZI at 2 mg disc -1 concentration). Water extracted samples indicated a good range of inhibitory effect against Salmonella typhi (73% ZI at 2 mg disc -1 ) and butanol extracted sample showed highest activity against Erwinia carotovora (75% ZI). The data also showed that of petroleum ether, methanol and water did not show any inhibitory effect against the tested microbes.
TL;DR: A feasible protocol for establishment of adventitious roots in A. bracteosa was developed and enhancement in biomass and metabolite content in adventitious root was promoted through elicitation.
Abstract: Ajuga bracteosa is a medicinally important plant globally used in the folk medicine against many serious ailments. In the present study, effects of two significant elicitors, methyl jasmonate (Me-J) and phenyl acetic acid (PAA) were studied on growth parameters, secondary metabolites production, and antioxidant potential in adventitious root suspension cultures of A. bracteosa. The results showed a substantial increase in biomass accumulation, exhibiting longer log phases of cultures growth in response to elicitor treatments, in comparison to control. Maximum dry biomass formation (8.88 DW g/L) was recorded on 32nd day in log phase of culture when 0.6 mg/L Me-J was applied; however, PAA at 1.2 mg/L produced maximum biomass (8.24 DW g/L) on day 40 of culture. Furthermore, we observed the elicitors-induced enhancement in phenolic content (total phenolic content), flavonoid content (total flavonoid content) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity) in root suspension cultures of A. bracteosa. Application of 0.6 mg/L and 1.2 mg/L of Me-J, root cultures accumulated higher TPC levels (3.6 mg GAE/g DW) and (3.7 mg GAE/g DW) in the log phase and stationary phase, respectively, while 2.5 mg/L Me-J produced lower levels (1.4 mg GAE/g DW) in stationary phase of growth stages. Moreover, TFC and FRSA values were found in correspondence to TPC values in the respective growth phases at the similar elicitor treatment. Thus, a feasible protocol for establishment of adventitious roots in A. bracteosa was developed and enhancement in biomass and metabolite content in adventitious root was promoted through elicitation.
TL;DR: This study provides basis for expedited production of S. marianum plantlets with feasible content of silymarin and showed that sily marin was a major antioxidant in current report.
Abstract: Silybum marianum is an economically important crop worldwide. It is renowned for production of biologically important silymarin. Average sale of silymarin is about US$ 8 billion/annum and its demand varies from 18 to 20 tons/year. Despite of its demand, there is lack of research efforts on cultivation and improvement of this plant. We hereby established feasible seed germination protocol for production of healthier and chemically consistent plantlets. Combination of benzyladenine (BA, 0.5 mg l −1 ) + gibberellic acid (GA 3 , 1.5 mg l −1 ) + thidiazuron (TDZ, 1.0 mg l −1 ) produced optimum germination frequency in seeds kept in 2 weeks dark and subsequently transferred to 2 weeks light (16 h photoperiod) conditions. Correlation among mean shoot length, mean root length, set of antioxidative enzyme activities was also observed in current report. Silymarin was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Considerable amount of silymarin (5.48 mg g −1 DW) was detected in our study, which was comparative to other reports available. Antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; FRSA) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity was also determined. Silymarin content had shown direct relationship with these activities. It showed that silymarin was a major antioxidant in current report. This study provides basis for expedited production of S. marianum plantlets with feasible content of silymarin.
TL;DR: Evaluating the antimicrobial potentials of methanol, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracted samples from the aerial parts of Eclipta alba revealed that all the six extracts from E. alba showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities.
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial potentials of methanol, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water extracted samples from the aerial parts of Eclipta alba against nine microbial species. The antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) susceptibility was screened by disc diffusion assay. The tested microbial species were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus . The extracts were applied in different concentrations of 1, 2 and 3 mg disc -1 . Analysis of the data revealed that all the six extracts from E. alba showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Butanol fraction showed inhibitory activities against all the nine microbial species. Ethyl acetate fraction showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except B. cereus and S. typhi . Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and water extracted samples had varying levels of inhibitions against some of these microorganisms. The most resistant microbial strain was S. typhi and was not controlled by petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and water extracted samples. The most susceptible Gram positive bacterium was B. subtilis and was inhibited by all the six extracts from E. alba while the most resistant Gram positive bacterium was B. cereus . E. carotovora was the most susceptible Gram negative bacterium while S. typhi and E. coli were highly resistant among the Gram negative bacteria.
TL;DR: Methods for somatic embryogenesis and comparative metabolite profiling of the different growth phases during embryogenesis in S. marianum are established and tryptophan was measured with increased signals in SE when compared to other growth phases.
Abstract: Silybum marianum, commonly known as Milk thistle, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of jaundice and liver cirrhosis worldwide. Here we established methods for somatic embryogenesis and comparative metabolite profiling of the different growth phases during embryogenesis in S. marianum. Highest embryogenic potential was observed for calli previously derived from petiole explants on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium containing 2.5 mg l−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1.5 mg l−1 N6-benzyladenine (BA). Somatic embryos (SE) were induced when embryogenic calli with pre-embryoid masses (PEMs) were subcultured on same media as used for induction of embryogenic callus. Highest number of somatic embryos (46 somatic embryo per callus) was observed at 1.5 mg l−1 2,4-D and 1.5 mg l−1 BA, however ½ strength MS medium showed optimal response for maturation followed by germination of somatic embryos at 1.5 mg l−1 GA3. Metabolite profiles from developmental stages of non-embryogenic callus (NEC), PEMs, SE and embryos germinating into intact plantlets (GSE) were obtained using Electro spray ionization mass spectrometry ESI/MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to identify key metabolites in different growth phases during somatic embryogenesis. The loading scatter plots enabled the detection of several bin masses responsible for separating samples from different growth stages. Based on the values of % total ions count and average intensity of selected bins in all biological samples, putatively known metabolites were obtained from in-house bin program. Amino acids associated with various biosynthetic pathways like arginine, asparagine and serine were abundantly detected in GSE, while they were detected at decreased intensities in NEC. However, tryptophan was measured with increased signals in SE when compared to other growth phases. Glucose, fructose and fructose-6-phosphate were mostly accumulated in NEC; however they were detected with lowest intensities in GSE. Moreover, sucrose and significant secondary metabolites like cinnamic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, linolenic acid, and 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate were found at higher amount in SE when compared to other embryogenic phases.
31 Dec 2004
TL;DR: The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Bacillus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger singly did not inhibit any of the test organisms. The highest inhibition zone of 19 mm was observed with a combination of extracts on Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella spp were resistant to almost all the extracts except lime.
TL;DR: This review aims to provide a brief overview of historically significant natural therapeutic agents along with some current potential drug candidates to provide an insight into pros and cons of natural product discovery and how development of recent approaches has answered the challenges associated with it.
Abstract: Since ancient times, natural products from plants, animals, microbial and marine sources have been exploited for treatment of several diseases. The knowledge of our ancestors is the base of modern drug discovery process. However, due to the presence of extensive biodiversity in natural sources, the percentage of secondary metabolites screened for bioactivity is low. This review aims to provide a brief overview of historically significant natural therapeutic agents along with some current potential drug candidates. It will also provide an insight into pros and cons of natural product discovery and how development of recent approaches has answered the challenges associated with it.
TL;DR: The use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens is encouraged.
Abstract: Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.
TL;DR: This study provides the first evidence of NP effect on callus culture development and production of natural antioxidants in P. vulgaris.
Abstract: Prunella vulgaris L. (P. vulgaris) is an important medicinal plant with a wide range of antiviral properties. Traditionally, it is known as self-heal because of its faster effects on wound healing. It is commonly known as a natural antiseptic due to the presence of various polyphenols. There is lack of research efforts on its propagation and production of bioactive compounds under field and in vitro conditions. In this study, the effects of different ratios (1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1) of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were investigated for callus culture development and production of secondary metabolites. The Ag (30 μg l-1), AgAu (1:2), and AgAu (2:1) NPs in combination with NAA (2.0 mg l-1) enhanced callus proliferation (100 %) as compared to the control (95 %). Among the different NPs tested, AuNPs with or without NAA produced higher biomass in log phases (35-42 days) of growth kinetics. Furthermore, AgAu (1:3) and AuNPs alone enhanced total protein content (855 μg-BSAE/mg-fresh weight (FW)), superoxide dismutase (0.54 nM/min/mg-FW), and peroxidase (0.39 nM/min/mg-FW) enzymes in callus cultures. The AgAuNPs (1:3) in combination with NAA induced maximum accumulation of phenolics (TPC 9.57 mg/g-dry weight (DW)) and flavonoid (6.71 mg/g-DW) content. Moreover, AgAuNPs (3:1) without NAA enhanced antioxidant activity (87.85 %). This study provides the first evidence of NP effect on callus culture development and production of natural antioxidants in P. vulgaris.
TL;DR: Methanol extracted samples stored at room temperature or autoclaved at 121 °C was effective to control the growth of all microbes under study.
Abstract: The present study investigates the antimicrobial and preservative potentials of turmeric extracts for food industry. Turmeric extracts prepared in n-hexane, water, chloroform and ethanol were applied to meals as preservatives and antibacterial agent. The samples were assessed microbiologically (total bacterial, total fungal and total coliform counts) and organoleptically (color, odor, taste) at day zero and after 15 days intervals. Meals autoclaved for shorter time (5 min) and treated with combination of 1 % or 2 % turmeric extract preserved for longer period. These results were comparable with samples autoclaved for longer period (15 min) with out turmeric extract. The antibacterial activities of different turmeric extracts were also tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans by disc diffusion method. Water extracted samples of turmeric stored at room temperature inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi while aqueous extract autoclaved at 121 °C for 30 min reduced the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Methanol extracted samples stored at room temperature or autoclaved at 121 °C was effective to control the growth of all microbes under study. Chloroform and n-hexane extracts (stored at room temperature) showed weak activity against all tested microbes.