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I. C. McManus

Bio: I. C. McManus is an academic researcher from University College London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Educational measurement & Ethnic group. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 40 publications receiving 1158 citations. Previous affiliations of I. C. McManus include Imperial College London & University of Cambridge.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
N Taffinder1, C Sutton, R J Fishwick, I. C. McManus, Ara Darzi 
TL;DR: The MIST VR simulator can objectively assess a number of desirable qualities in laparoscopic surgery, and can distinguish between experienced and novice surgeons, and quantified the beneficial effect of a structured training course on psychomotor skill acquisition.
Abstract: Objective assessment of surgical technique is currently impossible. A virtual reality simulator for laparoscopic surgery (MIST VR) models the movements needed to perform minimally invasive surgery and can generate a score for various aspects of psychomotor skill. Two studies were performed using the simulator: first to assess surgeons of different surgical experience to validate the scoring system; second to assess in a randomised controlled way, the effect of a standard laparoscopic surgery training course. Experienced surgeons (> 100 laparoscopic cholecystectomies) were significantly more efficient, made less correctional submovements and completed the virtual reality tasks faster than trainee surgeons or non-surgeons. The training course caused an improvement in efficiency and a reduction in errors, without a significant increase in speed when compared with the control group. The MIST VR simulator can objectively assess a number of desirable qualities in laparoscopic surgery, and can distinguish between experienced and novice surgeons. We have also quantified the beneficial effect of a structured training course on psychomotor skill acquisition.

261 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 1995-BMJ
TL;DR: People from ethnic minority groups applying to medical school are disadvantaged, principally because ethnic origin is assessed from a candidate's surname; the disadvantage has diminished since 1986.
Abstract: Objective: To assess whether people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to be accepted at British medical schools, and to explore the mechanisms of disadvantage. Design: Prospective study of a national cohort of medical school applicants. Setting: All 28 medical schools in the United Kingdom. Subjects: 6901 subjects who had applied through the Universities9 Central Council on Admissions in 1990 to study medicine. Main outcome measures: Offers and acceptance at medical school by ethnic group. Results: Applicants from ethnic minority groups constituted 26.3% of those applying to medical school. They were less likely to be accepted, partly because they were less well qualified and applied later. Nevertheless, taking educational and some other predictors into account, applicants from ethnic minority groups were 1.46 times (95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.74) less likely to be accepted. Having a European surname predicted acceptance better than ethnic origin itself, implying direct discrimination rather than disadvantage secondary to other possible differences between white and non-white applicants. Applicants from ethnic minority groups fared significantly less well in 12 of the 28 British medical schools. Analysis of the selection process suggests that medical schools make fewer offers to such applicants than to others with equivalent estimated A level grades. Conclusions: People from ethnic minority groups applying to medical school are disadvantaged, principally because ethnic origin is assessed from a candidate9s surname; the disadvantage has diminished since 1986. For subjects applying before A level the mechanism is that less credit is given to referees9 estimates of A level grades. Selection would be fairer if (a) application forms were anonymous; (b) forms did not include estimates of A level grades; and (c) selection took place after A level results are known. Key messages Key messages Applicants from ethnic minority groups continue to fare less well in being selected for medical school, although the extent of disadvantage is reduced in comparison with previous studies Since surname is a better predictor of disadvantage than ethnic origin as such, discrimination could be reduced by making application forms anonymous The locus of disadvantage in applicants is principally that estimated A level grades on application forms are given less weight in ethnic minority applicants—the problem could be circumvented by selecting medical students after they have their A level results No disadvantage was experienced by female applicants, mature applicants, or those from public sector schools, and no advantage was shown for those from medical families

106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Stress and anxiety are substantially raised in many preclinical students in their first year at medical school, and deep learning did not correlate with performance, whereas strategic learning correlated positively with examination success, even when measured 2 years previously during application to medical school.
Abstract: Stress and anxiety are substantially raised in many preclinical students in their first year at medical school. Although correlated with poor end-of-year examination performance, anxiety levels did not cause poor performance, but were themselves caused by previous poor performance in sessional examinations. Study habits showed declining deep and strategic approaches, and increasing surface ('rote-learning') approaches. Surface learning correlated with poor end-of-year examination performance, and was a result of previous poor sessional examination performance. Deep learning did not correlate with performance, whereas strategic learning correlated positively with examination success, even when measured 2 years previously during application to medical school.

100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of the performance of students in two prospective studies of 1981 and 1986 and of entrants to London medical schools taking finals in 1986, 1987, 1991 and 1992 confirmed that UK ethnic minority students performed less well than UK White students, although non‐UK ethnic minorityStudents performed better than US White students.
Abstract: It has recently been claimed that UK medical students from ethnic minorities perform less well than White students in final undergraduate examinations and that this results from discrimination in clinical examinations. In this paper the authors examine the performance of students in two prospective studies of 1981 and 1986 entrants to London medical schools taking finals in 1986, 1987, 1991 and 1992. Overall, 18.2% of students in the survey failed one or more examinations at finals. UK ethnic minority students were 2.09 times more likely to fail one or more examinations than were UK White students. Male students were also 1.65 times more likely to fail an examination than female students. More detailed analysis of individual marks confirmed that UK ethnic minority students performed less well than UK White students, although non-UK ethnic minority students performed better than UK White students. The difference between UK White and ethnic minority students could not be explained by differences in educational achievement, study habits or clinical experience. The poorer performance of UK ethnic minority students extended across multiple-choice questions (MCQ), essay, clinical and oral examinations. Ethnic minority students performed particularly poorly on examinations in medicine and surgery as compared with pathology and clinical pharmacology. Although UK-born ethnic minority students perform less well in final examinations than UK White students, this is unlikely to be explained by racial discrimination as the difference is present in MCQ examinations marked by machine and as non-UK ethnic minority students perform better than UK White students. The cause of the difference in performance is therefore not clear and requires further study.

64 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Nov 1984-BMJ
TL;DR: A prospective study of the process of application, selection, and admission to medical school was performed St Mary's Hospital Medical School received 1478 UCCA applications for admission in October 1981 as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A prospective study of the process of application, selection, and admission to medical school was performed St Mary's Hospital Medical School received 1478 UCCA applications for admission in October 1981: 94 (64%) applicants entered St Mary's in October 1981, 436 (295%) entered other medical schools, 176 (119%) read a subject other than medicine, and 772 (522%) did not enter university The study included 126% of all applicants and 129% of all entrants to British medical schools in October 1981 Educational qualifications, demographic variables, type of schooling, family background, and the manner of application were examined in relation to overall selection A level achievement was the major determinant of acceptance O level achievement, early application, and medical parents had significant but smaller independent effects on the chance of acceptance Social class, age, sex, and school type did not predict acceptance when corrected for academic and other factors Few differences in personality, career preference, cultural interests or attitudes were found between those accepted and those rejected

61 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: For example, Standardi pružaju okvir koje ukazuju na ucinkovitost kvalitetnih instrumenata u onim situacijama u kojima je njihovo koristenje potkrijepljeno validacijskim podacima.
Abstract: Pedagosko i psiholosko testiranje i procjenjivanje spadaju među najvažnije doprinose znanosti o ponasanju nasem drustvu i pružaju temeljna i znacajna poboljsanja u odnosu na ranije postupke. Iako se ne može ustvrditi da su svi testovi dovoljno usavrseni niti da su sva testiranja razborita i korisna, postoji velika kolicina informacija koje ukazuju na ucinkovitost kvalitetnih instrumenata u onim situacijama u kojima je njihovo koristenje potkrijepljeno validacijskim podacima. Pravilna upotreba testova može dovesti do boljih odluka o pojedincima i programima nego sto bi to bio slucaj bez njihovog koristenja, a također i ukazati na put za siri i pravedniji pristup obrazovanju i zaposljavanju. Međutim, losa upotreba testova može dovesti do zamjetne stete nanesene ispitanicima i drugim sudionicima u procesu donosenja odluka na temelju testovnih podataka. Cilj Standarda je promoviranje kvalitetne i eticne upotrebe testova te uspostavljanje osnovice za ocjenu kvalitete postupaka testiranja. Svrha objavljivanja Standarda je uspostavljanje kriterija za evaluaciju testova, provedbe testiranja i posljedica upotrebe testova. Iako bi evaluacija prikladnosti testa ili njegove primjene trebala ovisiti prvenstveno o strucnim misljenjima, Standardi pružaju okvir koji osigurava obuhvacanje svih relevantnih pitanja. Bilo bi poželjno da svi autori, sponzori, nakladnici i korisnici profesionalnih testova usvoje Standarde te da poticu druge da ih također prihvate.

3,905 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While research in this field needs improvement in terms of rigor and quality, high-fidelity medical simulations are educationally effective and simulation-based education complements medical education in patient care settings.
Abstract: SUMMARY Review date: 1969 to 2003, 34 years. Background and context: Simulations are now in widespread use in medical education and medical personnel evaluation. Outcomes research on the use and effectiveness of simulation technology in medical education is scattered, inconsistent and varies widely in methodological rigor and substantive focus. Objectives: Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that addresses the question, ‘What are the features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to most effective learning?’. Search strategy: The search covered five literature databases (ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Timelit) and employed 91 single search terms and concepts and their Boolean combinations. Hand searching, Internet searches and attention to the ‘grey literature’ were also used. The aim was to perform the most thorough literature search possible of peer-reviewed publications and reports in the unpublished literature that have been judged for academic quality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria: Four screening criteria were used to reduce the initial pool of 670 journal articles to a focused set of 109 studies: (a) elimination of review articles in favor of empirical studies; (b) use of a simulator as an educational assessment or intervention with learner outcomes measured quantitatively; (c) comparative research, either experimental or quasi-experimental; and (d) research that involves simulation as an educational intervention. Data extraction: Data were extracted systematically from the 109 eligible journal articles by independent coders. Each coder used a standardized data extraction protocol. Data synthesis: Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes were used. Heterogeneity of research designs, educational interventions, outcome measures and timeframe precluded data synthesis using meta-analysis. Headline results: Coding accuracy for features of the journal articles is high. The extant quality of the published research is generally weak. The weight of the best available evidence suggests that high-fidelity medical simulations facilitate learning under the right conditions. These include the following:

3,176 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The studies suggest a high prevalence of depression and anxiety among medical students, with levels of overall psychological distress consistently higher than in the general population and age-matched peers by the later years of training.
Abstract: PurposeTo systematically review articles reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students.MethodMedline and PubMed were searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published between January 1980 and May 2005 reporting on depression, anxie

2,079 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of mechanical devices for the teaching and evaluation of surgical skills is explored in the Medical Education series.
Abstract: Traditionally, surgeons have been trained and evaluated on the basis of their performance of surgical procedures in live patients. This article in the Medical Education series explores the use of mechanical devices for the teaching and evaluation of surgical skills.

1,550 citations