Bio: Ian Vorster is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Aptamer & Climate change. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 4 citations.
28 Mar 2021
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and isothermal titration calorimetry to determine the main interactions driving complex formation.
Abstract: Nucleic-acid aptamers are bio-molecular recognition agents that bind to their targets with high specificity and affinity and hold promise in a range of biosensor and therapeutic applications. In the case of small-molecule targets, their small size and limited number of functional groups constitute challenges for their detection by aptamer-based biosensors because bio-recognition events may both be weak and produce poorly transduced signals. The binding affinity is principally used to characterize aptamer-ligand interactions; however, a structural understanding of bio-recognition is arguably more valuable in order to design a strong response in biosensor applications. Using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we propose a binding model for a new methamphetamine aptamer and determine the main interactions driving complex formation. These measurements reveal only modest structural changes to the aptamer upon binding and are consistent with a conformational-selection binding model. The aptamer-methamphetamine complex formation was observed to be entropically driven, apparently involving hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Taken together, our results exemplify a means of elucidating small molecule-aptamer binding interactions, which may be decisive in the development of aptasensors and therapeutics and may contribute to a deeper understanding of interactions driving aptamer selection.
TL;DR: The authors investigated whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change could motivate pro-environmental behavior around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real.
Abstract: Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles1, 2, 3, 4, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries5, 6. Here we investigate a different approach, identifying whether potential co-benefits of addressing climate change7 could motivate pro-environmental behaviour around the world for both those convinced and unconvinced that climate change is real. We describe an integrated framework for assessing beliefs about co-benefits8, distinguishing social conditions (for example, economic development, reduced pollution or disease) and community character (for example, benevolence, competence). Data from all inhabited continents (24 countries; 6,196 participants) showed that two co-benefit types, Development (economic and scientific advancement) and Benevolence (a more moral and caring community), motivated public, private and financial actions to address climate change to a similar degree as believing climate change is important. Critically, relationships were similar for both convinced and unconvinced participants, showing that co-benefits can motivate action across ideological divides. These relationships were also independent of perceived climate change importance, and could not be explained by political ideology, age, or gender. Communicating co-benefits could motivate action on climate change where traditional approaches have stalled.
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: In this paper, the Behavioral Perspective Model was applied to the interpretation of environmental deleterious behaviors (use of private transportation, consumption of domestic energy, waste disposal, and domestic consumption of water).
Abstract: Consumer behavior analysis represents one development within the behavior-analytic tradition of interpreting complex behavior, in which a specific conceptual framework has been proposed (i.e., the Behavioral Perspective Model). According to this model, consumer behavior occurs at the intersection of a consumer-behavior setting and an individual’s learning history of consumption and is a function of utilitarian (mediated by the product) and informational (mediated by other persons) consequences. The model has been useful in analyses of consumers’ brand choice and reactions to different settings. In the present paper, the model was applied to the interpretation of environmental deleterious behaviors (use of private transportation, consumption of domestic energy, waste disposal, and domestic consumption of water). This application pointed to specific marketing strategies that should be adopted to modify each of these operant classes.
08 Mar 2014
TL;DR: The need for scientists to communicate more effectively about climate change is urgent as mentioned in this paper. But even the most basic facts of this issue (e.g., that the world is warming and that human activity is the dominant cause) are obscure to some decision makers who need to understand them.
Abstract: Science meets policy in the most important challenge of our time: global warming. Yet even the most basic facts of this issue (e.g., that the world is warming and that human activity is the dominant cause) are obscure to some decision makers who need to understand them. How can climate scientists be more effective at communicating what they know, how they know it, and how sure they are of it? The need for scientists to communicate more effectively about climate change is urgent. For people to take climate change seriously and support appropriate responses, they need to feel sure it is happening and is caused primarily by humans. But while the rise in global temperature is a fact (see, e.g., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , which calls the warming “unequivocal”), 56% of Americans believe there is a lot of disagreement among scientists about whether global warming is even occurring. And while every authoritative scientific body attributes most of the warming of the past 50 years to human activity [see, e.g., IPCC, 2007; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2006], only 41% of Americans believe that humanity is the dominant cause (42% believe it is due about equally to natural and human causes), according to an April 2007 poll by ABC News, The Washington Post, and Stanford University.
TL;DR: The critical aspects regarding the generation of aptamer-modified electrodes suitable for electrochemical sensing, such as appropriate bioreceptor immobilization strategy and experimental conditions which facilitate a convenient anchoring and stability of the aptamer, are discussed.
Abstract: Nucleic-acid aptamers consisting in single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides emerged as very promising biorecognition elements for electrochemical biosensors applied in various fields such as medicine, environmental, and food safety. Despite their outstanding features, such as high-binding affinity for a broad range of targets, high stability, low cost and ease of modification, numerous challenges had to be overcome from the aptamer selection process on the design of functioning biosensing devices. Moreover, in the case of small molecules such as metabolites, toxins, drugs, etc., obtaining efficient binding aptamer sequences proved a challenging task given their small molecular surface and limited interactions between their functional groups and aptamer sequences. Thus, establishing consistent evaluation standards for aptamer affinity is crucial for the success of these aptamers in biosensing applications. In this context, this article will give an overview on the thermodynamic and structural aspects of the aptamer-target interaction, its specificity and selectivity, and will also highlight the current methods employed for determining the aptamer-binding affinity and the structural characterization of the aptamer-target complex. The critical aspects regarding the generation of aptamer-modified electrodes suitable for electrochemical sensing, such as appropriate bioreceptor immobilization strategy and experimental conditions which facilitate a convenient anchoring and stability of the aptamer, are also discussed. The review also summarizes some effective small molecule aptasensing platforms from the recent literature.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors explore public perceptions about a particular market niche for hydrogen; mobile generators; and explore what festival audience members and residents who live near festival sites think about the displacement of incumbent diesel generator technology with hydrogen alternatives.
Abstract: This paper is the first to explore public perceptions about a particular market niche for hydrogen; mobile generators. By utilising a combined research approach including in-situ surveys and online focus groups, this paper explores what festival audience members and residents who live near festival sites think about the displacement of incumbent diesel generator technology with hydrogen alternatives. We investigate if hydrogen production methods are important in informing perceptions and subsequent support, including the extent to which participants are influenced by the organisation or entity that produces the fuel and stands to profit from its sale. In addition to a primary focus on hydrogen energy, we reflect upon how sustainability might be better conceptualised in a festival context. Our findings reveal broad support for hydrogen generators, the use of green hydrogen as a fuel to generate electricity and community-led hydrogen production.