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Author

Ignacio Tinoco

Bio: Ignacio Tinoco is an academic researcher from University of California, Berkeley. The author has contributed to research in topics: RNA & Circular dichroism. The author has an hindex of 90, co-authored 307 publications receiving 30855 citations. Previous affiliations of Ignacio Tinoco include University of Southern California & University of Wisconsin-Madison.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
14 Nov 1973-Nature
TL;DR: This method can be used for predicting and assessing possible secondary structures for recently determined RNA sequences and new experimental and theoretical results allow us to improve the method, without making it more complicated.
Abstract: A SIMPLE method for estimating the most stable secondary structure of an RNA molecule from its sequence was proposed earlier1. This method can be used for predicting and assessing possible secondary structures for recently determined RNA sequences2–4. New experimental5–8 and theoretical9, 10 results allow us to improve the method, without making it more complicated.

2,029 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jun 2002-Science
TL;DR: The implementation and test of Jarzynski's equality provides the first example of its use as a bridge between the statistical mechanics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems, and extends the thermodynamic analysis of single molecule manipulation data beyond the context of equilibrium experiments.
Abstract: Recent advances in statistical mechanical theory can be used to solve a fundamental problem in experimental thermodynamics. In 1997, Jarzynski proved an equality relating the irreversible work to the equilibrium free energy difference, DeltaG. This remarkable theoretical result states that it is possible to obtain equilibrium thermodynamic parameters from processes carried out arbitrarily far from equilibrium. We test Jarzynski's equality by mechanically stretching a single molecule of RNA reversibly and irreversibly between two conformations. Application of this equality to the irreversible work trajectories recovers the DeltaG profile of the stretching process to within k(B)T/2 (half the thermal energy) of its best independent estimate, the mean work of reversible stretching. The implementation and test of Jarzynski's equality provides the first example of its use as a bridge between the statistical mechanics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems. This work also extends the thermodynamic analysis of single molecule manipulation data beyond the context of equilibrium experiments.

1,086 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Sep 2005-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that the Crooks fluctuation theorem can be used to determine folding free energies for folding and unfolding processes occurring in weak as well as strong nonequilibrium regimes, thereby providing a test of its validity under such conditions.
Abstract: Atomic force microscopes and optical tweezers are widely used to probe the mechanical properties of individual molecules and molecular interactions, by exerting mechanical forces that induce transitions such as unfolding or dissociation. These transitions often occur under nonequilibrium conditions and are associated with hysteresis effects-features usually taken to preclude the extraction of equilibrium information from the experimental data. But fluctuation theorems allow us to relate the work along nonequilibrium trajectories to thermodynamic free-energy differences. They have been shown to be applicable to single-molecule force measurements and have already provided information on the folding free energy of a RNA hairpin. Here we show that the Crooks fluctuation theorem can be used to determine folding free energies for folding and unfolding processes occurring in weak as well as strong nonequilibrium regimes, thereby providing a test of its validity under such conditions. We use optical tweezers to measure repeatedly the mechanical work associated with the unfolding and refolding of a small RNA hairpin and an RNA three-helix junction. The resultant work distributions are then analysed according to the theorem and allow us to determine the difference in folding free energy between an RNA molecule and a mutant differing only by one base pair, and the thermodynamic stabilizing effect of magnesium ions on the RNA structure.

938 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Apr 2001-Science
TL;DR: The force-dependent equilibrium constants for folding/unfolding these single RNA molecules and the positions of their transition states along the reaction coordinate are determined.
Abstract: Here we use mechanical force to induce the unfolding and refolding of single RNA molecules: a simple RNA hairpin, a molecule containing a three-helix junction, and the P5abc domain of the Tetrahymena thermophila ribozyme. All three molecules (P5abc only in the absence of Mg2+) can be mechanically unfolded at equilibrium, and when kept at constant force within a critical force range, are bi-stable and hop between folded and unfolded states. We determine the force-dependent equilibrium constants for folding/unfolding these single RNA molecules and the positions of their transition states along the reaction coordinate.

913 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A folding algorithm to predict the structure of an RNA from its sequence is suggested, but to solve the RNA folding problem one needs thermodynamic data on tertiary structure interactions, and identification and characterization of metal-ion binding sites.

910 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: NAMD as discussed by the authors is a parallel molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large biomolecular systems that scales to hundreds of processors on high-end parallel platforms, as well as tens of processors in low-cost commodity clusters, and also runs on individual desktop and laptop computers.
Abstract: NAMD is a parallel molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large biomolecular systems. NAMD scales to hundreds of processors on high-end parallel platforms, as well as tens of processors on low-cost commodity clusters, and also runs on individual desktop and laptop computers. NAMD works with AMBER and CHARMM potential functions, parameters, and file formats. This article, directed to novices as well as experts, first introduces concepts and methods used in the NAMD program, describing the classical molecular dynamics force field, equations of motion, and integration methods along with the efficient electrostatics evaluation algorithms employed and temperature and pressure controls used. Features for steering the simulation across barriers and for calculating both alchemical and conformational free energy differences are presented. The motivations for and a roadmap to the internal design of NAMD, implemented in C++ and based on Charm++ parallel objects, are outlined. The factors affecting the serial and parallel performance of a simulation are discussed. Finally, typical NAMD use is illustrated with representative applications to a small, a medium, and a large biomolecular system, highlighting particular features of NAMD, for example, the Tcl scripting language. The article also provides a list of the key features of NAMD and discusses the benefits of combining NAMD with the molecular graphics/sequence analysis software VMD and the grid computing/collaboratory software BioCoRE. NAMD is distributed free of charge with source code at www.ks.uiuc.edu.

14,558 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The objective of this web server is to provide easy access to RNA and DNA folding and hybridization software to the scientific community at large by making use of universally available web GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces).
Abstract: The abbreviated name,‘mfold web server’,describes a number of closely related software applications available on the World Wide Web (WWW) for the prediction of the secondary structure of single stranded nucleic acids. The objective of this web server is to provide easy access to RNA and DNA folding and hybridization software to the scientific community at large. By making use of universally available web GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces),the server circumvents the problem of portability of this software. Detailed output,in the form of structure plots with or without reliability information,single strand frequency plots and ‘energy dot plots’, are available for the folding of single sequences. A variety of ‘bulk’ servers give less information,but in a shorter time and for up to hundreds of sequences at once. The portal for the mfold web server is http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/ mfold. This URL will be referred to as ‘MFOLDROOT’.

12,535 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Mar 2006-Nature
TL;DR: This work describes a simple method for folding long, single-stranded DNA molecules into arbitrary two-dimensional shapes, which can be programmed to bear complex patterns such as words and images on their surfaces.
Abstract: 'Bottom-up fabrication', which exploits the intrinsic properties of atoms and molecules to direct their self-organization, is widely used to make relatively simple nanostructures. A key goal for this approach is to create nanostructures of high complexity, matching that routinely achieved by 'top-down' methods. The self-assembly of DNA molecules provides an attractive route towards this goal. Here I describe a simple method for folding long, single-stranded DNA molecules into arbitrary two-dimensional shapes. The design for a desired shape is made by raster-filling the shape with a 7-kilobase single-stranded scaffold and by choosing over 200 short oligonucleotide 'staple strands' to hold the scaffold in place. Once synthesized and mixed, the staple and scaffold strands self-assemble in a single step. The resulting DNA structures are roughly 100 nm in diameter and approximate desired shapes such as squares, disks and five-pointed stars with a spatial resolution of 6 nm. Because each oligonucleotide can serve as a 6-nm pixel, the structures can be programmed to bear complex patterns such as words and images on their surfaces. Finally, individual DNA structures can be programmed to form larger assemblies, including extended periodic lattices and a hexamer of triangles (which constitutes a 30-megadalton molecular complex).

6,141 citations