Author

# Igor L. Markov

Other affiliations: Synopsys, Google, University of California, Los Angeles ...read more

Bio: Igor L. Markov is an academic researcher from University of Michigan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Quantum computer & Quantum algorithm. The author has an hindex of 65, co-authored 327 publications receiving 14400 citations. Previous affiliations of Igor L. Markov include Synopsys & Google.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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10 Mar 2008

TL;DR: A novel comprehensive technique to end piracy of integrated circuits (EPIC), which requires that every chip be activated with an external key, which can only be generated by the holder of IP rights, and cannot be duplicated.

Abstract: As semiconductor manufacturing requires greater capital investments, the use of contract foundries has grown dramatically, increasing exposure to mask theft and unauthorized excess production. While only recently studied, IC piracy has now become a major challenge for the electronics and defense industries [6].We propose a novel comprehensive technique to end piracy of integrated circuits (EPIC). It requires that every chip be activated with an external key, which can only be generated by the holder of IP rights, and cannot be duplicated. EPIC is based on (i) automatically-generated chip IDs, (ii) a novel combinational locking algorithm, and (iii) innovative use of public-key cryptography. Our evaluation suggests that the overhead of EPIC on circuit delay and power is negligible, and the standard flows for verification and test do not require change. In fact, major required components have already been integrated into several chips in production. We also use formal methods to evaluate combinational locking and computational attacks. A comprehensive protocol analysis concludes that EPIC is surprisingly resistant to various piracy attempts.

639 citations

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TL;DR: Efficient quantum-logic circuits that perform two tasks are discussed: 1) implementing generic quantum computations, and 2) initializing quantum registers that are asymptotically optimal for respective tasks.

Abstract: The pressure of fundamental limits on classical computation and the promise of exponential speedups from quantum effects have recently brought quantum circuits (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, Math. Phys. Sci., vol. 425, p. 73, 1989) to the attention of the electronic design automation community (Proc. 40th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conf., 2003), (Phys. Rev. A, At. Mol. Opt. Phy., vol. 68, p. 012318, 2003), (Proc. 41st Design Automation Conf., 2004), (Proc. 39th Design Automation Conf., 2002), (Proc. Design, Automation, and Test Eur., 2004), (Phys. Rev. A, At. Mol. Opt. Phy., vol. 69, p. 062321, 2004), (IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst., vol. 22, p. 710, 2003). Efficient quantum-logic circuits that perform two tasks are discussed: 1) implementing generic quantum computations, and 2) initializing quantum registers. In contrast to conventional computing, the latter task is nontrivial because the state space of an n-qubit register is not finite and contains exponential superpositions of classical bitstrings. The proposed circuits are asymptotically optimal for respective tasks and improve earlier published results by at least a factor of 2. The circuits for generic quantum computation constructed by the algorithms are the most efficient known today in terms of the number of most expensive gates [quantum controlled-NOTs (CNOTs)]. They are based on an analog of the Shannon decomposition of Boolean functions and a new circuit block, called quantum multiplexor (QMUX), which generalizes several known constructions. A theoretical lower bound implies that the circuits cannot be improved by more than a factor of 2. It is additionally shown how to accommodate the severe architectural limitation of using only nearest neighbor gates, which is representative of current implementation technologies. This increases the number of gates by almost an order of magnitude, but preserves the asymptotic optimality of gate counts

545 citations

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TL;DR: In an application important to quantum computing, the synthesis of oracle circuits for Grover's search algorithm are synthesized, and a significant improvement over a previously proposed synthesis algorithm is shown.

Abstract: Reversible or information-lossless circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics, and cryptography. They are also a fundamental requirement in the emerging field of quantum computation. We investigate the synthesis of reversible circuits that employ a minimum number of gates and contain no redundant input-output line-pairs (temporary storage channels). We prove constructively that every even permutation can be implemented without temporary storage using NOT, CNOT, and TOFFOLI gates. We describe an algorithm for the synthesis of optimal circuits and study the reversible functions on three wires, reporting the distribution of circuit sizes. We also study canonical circuit decompositions where gates of the same kind are grouped together. Finally, in an application important to quantum computing, we synthesize oracle circuits for Grover's search algorithm, and show a significant improvement over a previously proposed synthesis algorithm.

514 citations

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TL;DR: It is proved that a quantum circuit with T gates whose underlying graph has a treewidth d can be simulated deterministically in T^{O(1)}\exp[O(d)]$ time, which, in particular, is polynomial in $T$ if d=O(\log T)$.

Abstract: The treewidth of a graph is a useful combinatorial measure of how close the graph is to a tree. We prove that a quantum circuit with $T$ gates whose underlying graph has a treewidth $d$ can be simulated deterministically in $T^{O(1)}\exp[O(d)]$ time, which, in particular, is polynomial in $T$ if $d=O(\log T)$. Among many implications, we show efficient simulations for log-depth circuits whose gates apply to nearby qubits only, a natural constraint satisfied by most physical implementations. We also show that one-way quantum computation of Raussendorf and Briegel (Phys. Rev. Lett., 86 (2001), pp. 5188-5191), a universal quantum computation scheme with promising physical implementations, can be efficiently simulated by a randomized algorithm if its quantum resource is derived from a small-treewidth graph with a constant maximum degree. (The requirement on the maximum degree was removed in [I. L. Markov and Y. Shi, preprint:quant-ph/0511069].)

409 citations

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TL;DR: This paper studies the fixed-outline floorplan formulation that is more relevant to hierarchical design style and is justified for very large ASICs and SoCs and proposes new objective functions to drive simulated annealing and new types of moves that better guide local search in the new context.

Abstract: Classical floorplanning minimizes a linear combination of area and wirelength. When simulated annealing is used, e.g., with the sequence pair representation, the typical choice of moves is fairly straightforward. In this paper, we study the fixed-outline floorplan formulation that is more relevant to hierarchical design style and is justified for very large ASICs and SoCs. We empirically show that instances of the fixed-outline floorplan problem are significantly harder than related instances of classical floorplan problems. We suggest new objective functions to drive simulated annealing and new types of moves that better guide local search in the new context. Wirelength improvements and optimization of aspect ratios of soft blocks are explicitly addressed by these techniques. Our proposed moves are based on the notion of floorplan slack. The proposed slack computation can be implemented with all existing algorithms to evaluate sequence pairs, of which we use the simplest, yet semantically indistinguishable from the fastest reported . A similar slack computation is possible with many other floorplan representations. In all cases the computation time approximately doubles. Our empirical evaluation is based on a new floorplanner implementation Parquet-1 that can operate in both outline-free and fixed-outline modes. We use Parquet-1 to floorplan a design, with approximately 32000 cells, in 37 min using a top-down, hierarchical paradigm.

397 citations

##### Cited by

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[...]

TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an updated version of supplementary information to accompany "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor", an article published in the October 24, 2019 issue of Nature, is presented.

Abstract: This is an updated version of supplementary information to accompany "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor", an article published in the October 24, 2019 issue of Nature. The main article is freely available at this https URL. Summary of changes since arXiv:1910.11333v1 (submitted 23 Oct 2019): added URL for qFlex source code; added Erratum section; added Figure S41 comparing statistical and total uncertainty for log and linear XEB; new References [1,65]; miscellaneous updates for clarity and style consistency; miscellaneous typographical and formatting corrections.

4,873 citations

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05 May 2003TL;DR: This article presents a small, complete, and efficient SAT-solver in the style of conflict-driven learning, as exemplified by Chaff, and includes among other things a mechanism for adding arbitrary boolean constraints.

Abstract: In this article, we present a small, complete, and efficient SAT-solver in the style of conflict-driven learning, as exemplified by Chaff. We aim to give sufficient details about implementation to enable the reader to construct his or her own solver in a very short time.This will allow users of SAT-solvers to make domain specific extensions or adaptions of current state-of-the-art SAT-techniques, to meet the needs of a particular application area. The presented solver is designed with this in mind, and includes among other things a mechanism for adding arbitrary boolean constraints. It also supports solving a series of related SAT-problems efficiently by an incremental SAT-interface.

2,985 citations

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Google

^{1}, University of Massachusetts Amherst^{2}, Ames Research Center^{3}, California Institute of Technology^{4}, University of California, Santa Barbara^{5}, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg^{6}, Oak Ridge National Laboratory^{7}, University of California, Riverside^{8}, RWTH Aachen University^{9}, Forschungszentrum Jülich^{10}, University of Michigan^{11}, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign^{12}TL;DR: Quantum supremacy is demonstrated using a programmable superconducting processor known as Sycamore, taking approximately 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times, which would take a state-of-the-art supercomputer around ten thousand years to compute.

Abstract: The promise of quantum computers is that certain computational tasks might be executed exponentially faster on a quantum processor than on a classical processor1. A fundamental challenge is to build a high-fidelity processor capable of running quantum algorithms in an exponentially large computational space. Here we report the use of a processor with programmable superconducting qubits2-7 to create quantum states on 53 qubits, corresponding to a computational state-space of dimension 253 (about 1016). Measurements from repeated experiments sample the resulting probability distribution, which we verify using classical simulations. Our Sycamore processor takes about 200 seconds to sample one instance of a quantum circuit a million times-our benchmarks currently indicate that the equivalent task for a state-of-the-art classical supercomputer would take approximately 10,000 years. This dramatic increase in speed compared to all known classical algorithms is an experimental realization of quantum supremacy8-14 for this specific computational task, heralding a much-anticipated computing paradigm.

2,527 citations

01 Apr 1997

TL;DR: The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity.

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind. The emphasis is on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity. Topics covered includes an introduction to the concepts in cryptography, attacks against cryptographic systems, key use and handling, random bit generation, encryption modes, and message authentication codes. Recommendations on algorithms and further reading is given in the end of the paper. This paper should make the reader able to build, understand and evaluate system descriptions and designs based on the cryptographic components described in the paper.

2,188 citations