scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

II Jerry Crawford

Bio: II Jerry Crawford is an academic researcher from University of Kansas. The author has contributed to research in topics: The Internet & Journalism. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 8 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Journal and Mass Communication (JMC) units at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are faced with the personal challenge of tenuous term limits - served at the discretion of higher administrators - and teaching two or three classes.
Abstract: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are facing challenges to their continued existence on several fronts. One is fiscally, as federal funding for education has been cut and the responsibility for paying for higher education has been levied on students and parents. Another challenge is the amount of endowment dollars available to them and lastly, there are questions today as to if HBCUs are still needed in a society that has allowed African-Americans to enroll in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Administrators of the 55 Journalism and Mass Communication (JMC) units at HBCUs have to lead with an eye on tradition while dealing with current financial issues. The administrators are faced with the personal challenge of tenuous term limits - served at the discretion of higher administrators - and teaching two or three classes. They work under larger units and have minimal authority over budgets, hiring, or strategic planning for their units.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Clute Institute as mentioned in this paper provides immediate open access to their journals on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge, and provides a set of permissions for researchers to access their articles.
Abstract: This is the published version, made available with the permission of the Clute Institute. Per their conditions of use, the publisher "provides immediate open access to their journals on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, remix, tweak, build upon, print, search, or link the full text of the articles in this journal provided that appropriate credit is given."

4 citations


Cited by
More filters
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The role of HBCU's Faculty in Teaching Diversity Diversity Diversity: How to Institutionalize and Solidify a New Status as mentioned in this paper The role of the Faculty in teaching diversity Diversity and HBCUs: Definitions, history and issues Implementing Reform Efforts Changing the Academic Subcultures via the Formal Curriculum Recruiting Admitting and Retaining the White Minority Cooperative Arrangements: Taking the Lead in Social Change Making the Campus Friendly to Other Race Students: Modifying the Extracurriculum HBCUE Diversity Transition Model: Building Bridges Between Cultures
Abstract: Preface Diversity and the HBCU: Definitions, History and Issues Implementing Reform Efforts Changing the Academic Subcultures via the Formal Curriculum Recruiting Admitting and Retaining the White Minority Cooperative Arrangements: Taking the Lead in Social Change Making the Campus Friendly to Other Race Students: Modifying the Extracurriculum HBCU Diversity Transition Model: Building Bridges Between Cultures The Role of HBCU's Faculty in Teaching Diversity Diversity: How to Institutionalize and Solidify a New Status

34 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of the online transparency of the top 100 Universities in the world and which factors influence the degree of online transparency achieved by these institutions finds that younger universities of greater size and which are privately funded are the ones most interested in utilizing web pages.

15 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the challenges faced by Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) due to their lack of accreditation and the lack of endowment dollars available to them.
Abstract: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are facing challenges to their continued existence on several entities. One is fiscally, as federal funding for education has been cut and the responsibility for paying for higher education has been levied on students and parents. Another challenge is the amount of endowment dollars available to them and lastly, there are questions today as to if HBCUs are still needed in a society that has allowed African-Americans to enroll in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Both of these challenges are contingent on the most critical issue – accreditation. The loss of accreditation of units and entire institutions has forced several HBCUs to shutter their doors. In 2016 alone, four presidents were fired due, in part, to accreditation and budgetary shortfalls. HBCUs are more than learning institutions; they are also cultural and economic incubators in their localities and regions. The closure of HBCUs creates a loss of valuable opportunities for first generation students of all races, a loss of diverse researchers, and the loss of voices in our American society. Introduction Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are Black academic institutions established prior to 1964 whose principal mission was, and still is, the education of Black Americans (Roebuck & Murty, 1993, p. 3). This singular mission is sometimes at odds with HBCUs aspiring to, acquiring and maintaining individual units and overall university accreditation. In order to earn the HBCU designation, the school must be accredited or working toward accreditation in their states and can be junior colleges or have programs that work toward a bachelor’s degree. “Ashmum Institute, now Lincoln University, was the first all-African American institution to remain in its original location, award baccalaureate degrees, and develop completely into a degree-granting college” (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009). HBCUs have been around for over 156 years and have served as a beacon in the African-American community for vocational, professional, political, and scholarly education. The roots of designation started in Congress. Justin Morrill, a congressional representative from Vermont, championed legislation in 1862 for each state to have land set aside to establish agriculture and vocational/mechanical arts. The rights for Blacks to receive these opportunities were minimal or nonexistent. Therefore, because of the \"educational segregation of the Southern states, a subsequent Morrill Land Grant Act, enacted in 1890, established sixteen Black colleges to serve the same purpose for the African American population\" (Justiz, Wilson, & Björk, 1994, p. 198). These new schools, and some that had previously been created, were all now known as \"the 1890 HBCUs: Accreditation Journal of Research Initiatives 2 colleges' to distinguish them from the 1862 land grant colleges\" (Justiz, Wilson, & Björk, 1994, p. 198). Southern states simply opened the new colleges and excluded Blacks. Some educators, such as Paul Barringer of the University of Virginia, were against educating these freed men. He said it was foolish to try to educate the former slaves while there are so many poor whites who needed training for the same jobs. In stating his case, Barringer emphasized, \"We cannot equip both, and to equip the Negro to the neglect of the poor white would be a grave political error and an economic absurdity\" (Brooks, 1996, p. 241). The second Morrill Act demanded the southern states to create schools to educate the freed men. Unfortunately, as is reality now, the funding for these two groups of institutions were never equal or fair. Even with the differences in funding, \"this second Morrill Act did eventually give rise to several historically Black agricultural and mechanical colleges\" (Jones-Wilson, Asbury, Okazawa-Rey, Anderson, Jacobs, & Fultz, 1996, p. 18). Present-day funding is tied to institutional outcomes – from accreditation to enrollment to assessment. Accreditation is a way in which an institution is perceived as having legitimacy and transparency in the manner it is structured and operational. Most accreditation bodies of higher education institutions and programs require that programs assess their effectiveness. These accreditation processes often require self-study of individual programs as well as the institution in and of itself (DavidsonShivers, Inpornjivit & Sellers, 2004). Accreditation is an essential system for recognizing professional and educational programs affiliated with those institutions as having standards, a level of performance, integrity, and quality that entitles them to the confidence of the educational community and the public. The study of accreditation is important because it helps the public and other stakeholders have a record of the practices and procedures that govern institutions of higher learning. Institutional agencies look at the operation of the entire college or university. The administration of institutions of higher education is a complex, challenging, and, in many instances, frustrating undertaking. The administrator must deal with many groups, including students, faculty, other administrators, federal, state, and local governing agencies, accreditation agencies, business and professional organizations, service clubs, and alumni. This paper looks at how HBCUs operate as institutions. “Institutional Theory is an emergent set of theoretical arguments about the influence of broader sets of societal values, cultural theories, ideologies, perceptions on organizational structures, and practices.” (Heck, 2004, p. 150) Institutional theory provides an alternative to technical-rational conceptions of organizations. This perspective on organizations “flows from a general institutional theory of social organization, which explains that the behavior of actors, both individual and collective, expresses externally enforced institutions rather than internally derived goals” (Crawford, Kydd, & Riches, 1997, p. 14). \"Institutional theory stresses that organizational adaptation occurs due to institutional pressures for legitimacy rather than market pressures for efficiency” (Greenwood and Hinings, 1996). HBCU administrators work within this framework of having their units, focused as primarily teaching institutions, while attempting to have at least some working professionals on staff. Many of these administrators have found that having media professionals, in the various fields, to join their faculty, as both adjuncts and lecturers is a way to meet current best practices at accredited institutions. “Institutional theory is powerful in demonstrating the way in which organizations are linked to their environment; the role of agency is underestimated. It is therefore important to examine the processes by which strategic choice is exercised within organizations (Child, 1972). The administrators’ challenge is to make their units as successful as they can. They define HBCUs: Accreditation Journal of Research Initiatives 3 success in different ways and institutional theory works because it does not give a template as to what makes the organization a success. \"Institutional isomorphism stresses legitimacy over efficiency, thereby allowing for the persistence of inefficient, but legitimate, organizations\" (Poole & Van De Ven, 2004, p. 136). HBCUs, whose primary missions were to be teaching schools, have an outstanding record of achieving and maintaining accreditation for their teaching units. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) is one accreditation that HBCUs have proven to master. NCATE is a national accrediting body for schools, colleges, and departments of education authorized by the U.S. Department of Education. NCATE determines which schools, colleges, and departments of education meet rigorous national standards in preparing teachers and other school specialists for the classroom (NCATE, 2004). Colleges and universities with Schools of Education have had to evolve with current laws and social mores. There is only one national organization whose direct actions have affected the question of who should be accredited in a particular state. This organization, which is without legal status, is a voluntary agency known as the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). So, how can HBCUs, being so sound in maintaining NCATE standards, be failing in other accreditation models? HBCUs have closed their doors or been in danger of closing in the last several years. This paper examines the missions and accreditation of HBCUs, the governance challenges at these institutions, and student recruitment and retention, along with possible avenues for the future success of HBCUs. HBCU Governance: Challenges and Successes Researchers have examined the leadership and governance of colleges and universities during the last decade. The topic of accreditation has been researched, primarily regarding online degrees, also during this period. However, the paucity of specific research on how accreditation and HBCUs intersect has been lacking in the leading educational and journalism academic journals. Educational leadership within a college or university’s units makes them strong and, at times, vulnerable for failure if the leaders are not able to work within the unit’s mission statement and culture, yet be innovative enough to look forward for opportunities for institutional success. Decision-making contexts can be affected by structural, cultural, or situational distinctions that leaders of these institutions must take into account. If governance is the structure by which decisions are made determining the direction of a campus, then research on what affects decisionmaking is important. While the distinctiveness of HBCUs is widely recognized, defining what contextual aspects potentially affect decision-making practices has not been a focal point of scholarship (Minor, 2004

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined how freshmen and first-semester journalism and masscommunications students at five Historically Black Colleges and Universities have been able to bridge the digital divide, which is defined as the distance or gap in access to information based on race, ethnicity, income, education and geographical location.
Abstract: The digital divide has been described as the distance or gap in access to information based on race, ethnicity, income,education and geographical location. This study examined how freshmen and first-semester journalism and masscommunications students at five Historically Black Colleges and Universities have been able to bridge the divide. Itis important to know that HBCUs educate more than African-Americans, however the majority of students atHBCUs come from lower socio-economic levels than students that attend Predominantly White Institutions. Therespondents in this study are self-described as daily moderate to heavy Internet users. Their parents and guardians arealso frequent Internet users. The study examines the uses and gratifications of the respondents and if their institutionswere able to help them find information on school funding. The study’s results are completely portable to otherdisciplines and all colleges and universities regardless of size or scope.

7 citations