Bio: Ilhan Talinli is an academic researcher from Istanbul Technical University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Chemical oxygen demand & Hazardous waste. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 22 publications receiving 753 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, it has been shown that hydrogen peroxide interferes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis, and further shows how to allow for this interference in future COD analysis.
Abstract: The standard method for measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD), which is widely used throughout environmental engineering is affected by a number of inorganic substances. These are outlined in Standard Methods (APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16th edition, Washington, D.C., 1985) and methods of overcoming the problems are given, however, no reference is made to hydrogen peroxide as an interfering substance. In a number of complex industrial wastewaters, H2O2 is present and is also used in its treatment which will thus interfere with the analysis. This interference has a positive error effected on COD. This work has been carried out in order to show how hydrogen peroxide interferes in COD analysis, and further shows how to allow for this interference in future COD analysis. A number of specific points have been raised. It has been shown that H2O2 forms a complex with potassium dichromate, the structure of which is given. In experiments which were made on a range of synthetic samples, it was noted that the samples containing H2O2 had different COD values for various concentrations although they contained no organic substances. Also, it was shown on industrial wastewater samples that H2O2 either increased the COD values of the wastewater samples or interfered with the procedure, by completely masking the titration end-point. Reference is made to those industries and processes which contribute to interference by H2O2. A method of calculating the effect of interference by H2O2 is recommended.
TL;DR: In this article, the removal and recovery of ammonia from urine by stripping and absorption processes was investigated, where ammonia was stripped with air in a batch system and absorbed in a sulphuric acid solution.
Abstract: Separately collected human urine contains valuable nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium This study concerns the removal and recovery of ammonia from urine by stripping and absorption processes Throughout the experiments, ammonia was stripped with air in a batch system and absorbed in sulphuric acid solution Combined mass transfer coefficient (KL × a) for urine–air interaction, was calculated for different pH levels and air flow rates, by using a spherical stripping unit equipped with a ceramic fine-pore air stone (average pore size 40 microns) (KL × a) was observed to increase with increasing pH level and air flow rate The highest value of combined mass transfer coefficient was 048 h−1 , obtained at a pH of 12 and an air flow rate of 027 m3/h In the stripping process, a direct relationship was observed between air flow rate and mass transfer rate At an air flow rate of 021 m3/h, and at pH 12, the highest mass transfer rate (0085 g/h) was obtained In the absorption unit, aver
TL;DR: Field data confirms that amoxicillin is more prone to degradation with respect to other antibiotics and Estrone and 17-β estradiol are converted to estriol by natural processes in surface water.
Abstract: The occurrence of 14 mostly used pharmaceuticals from different classes (antibiotics, β-blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and stimulant) and hormones in surface water in Istanbul, Turkey was investigated in this study. An important drinking water source, Buyukcekmece Lake and main rivers flowing into the lake were selected for the monitoring of the compounds. Sampling was conducted five different times in a year in order to observe seasonal changes. A rapid, robust and sensitive method using solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was established for quantification of both pharmaceuticals and hormones. Limit of quantifications were between 0.5 and 1.1 ng L(-1). Recoveries were between 72-119% and 61-98% for ultra-pure water and for surface water, respectively. All selected compounds were detected at least once in the samples. Some pharmaceuticals were detected as high as a few of micrograms per liter levels in the rivers. Most frequently detected compounds were caffeine and antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole). Synthetic hormone (17α-ethynylestradiol) was detected only 4times corresponding least detected compound in whole sampling period. Field data confirms that amoxicillin is more prone to degradation with respect to other antibiotics. Estrone and 17-β estradiol are converted to estriol by natural processes in surface water.
TL;DR: It was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority.
Abstract: Environmental management, for which environmental and human health risk assessment is the first stage, is a requirement for industries both before construction and during operation in order to sustain improved quality of life in the ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an approach that integrates environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials in order to support environmental decision makers with quantitative and directive results. Analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy logic are used as tools to handle problems caused by complexity of environment and uncertain data. When the proposed approach is implemented to a scenario, it was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority. In addition, they can easily point out and rank the factors contributing those risk sources owing to priority weights of them. As a result, environmental decision makers can use this approach while they are developing management alternatives for unfounded and on-going industrial plants using hazardous materials.
TL;DR: The organic contaminants and heavy metals present in PS were determined to be immobilized by the S/S process in accordance with the BS 6920 standard, and the potential for hazardous PS waste to adversely impact human health and the environment was effectively eliminated.
Abstract: Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of automotive phosphate coating sludge (PS) containing potentially toxic heavy metals was studied. The hazardous characteristics of this waste were assessed according to both Turkish and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for hazardous solid waste. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behavior tests of the solidified/stabilized product were performed. Solidification studies were conducted using Portland cement (PC) as the binder. UCS was found to decrease with increasing waste content. It was found that recovery of the waste for construction applications was possible when the waste content of the mortar was 20% and below, but solidification for safe disposal was achieved only when higher waste concentrations were added. Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be significantly immobilized by the solidification/stabilization process. Ni and Zn, which were present at particularly high concentrations (2.281 and 135.318 g/kg respectively) in the PS, had highest the retention levels (94.87% and 98.74%, respectively) in the PC mortars. The organic contaminants and heavy metals present in PS were determined to be immobilized by the S/S process in accordance with the BS 6920 standard. Thus, the potential for hazardous PS waste to adversely impact human health and the environment was effectively eliminated by the S/S procedure. We conclude that S/S-treated PS is safe for disposal in landfills, while recovery of S/S-treated PS constituents remains possible.
TL;DR: A review of the current state-of-the-art on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment is presented in this article, where the environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria.
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a unique group of emerging environmental contaminants, due to their inherent ability to induce physiological effects in human at low doses. An increasing number of studies has confirmed the presence of various PPCPs in different environmental compartments, which raises concerns about the potential adverse effects to humans and wildlife. Therefore, this article reviews the current state-of-knowledge on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment. The environmental risk posed by these contaminants is evaluated in light of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity criteria. Available literature on the sources, transport and degradation of PPCPs in the aquatic environment are evaluated, followed by a comprehensive review of the reported concentrations of different PPCP groups in the freshwater aquatic environment (water, sediment and biota) of the five continents. Finally, future perspectives for research on PPCPs in the freshwater aquatic environment are discussed in light of the identified research gaps in current knowledge.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the current status of technology deployment and recommendations for future remediation research is presented. And the authors also elucidate and compare the available technologies that are currently being applied for remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils, as well as the economic aspect of soil remediation for different techniques.
Abstract: Soil contamination with persistent and potentially (eco)toxic heavy metal(loid)s is ubiquitous around the globe. Concentration of these heavy metal(loid)s in soil has increased drastically over the last three decades, thus posing risk to the environment and human health. Some technologies have long been in use to remediate the hazardous heavy metal(loid)s. Conventional remediation methods for heavy metal(loid)s are generally based on physical, chemical and biological approaches, which may be used in combination with one another to clean-up heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils to an acceptable and safe level. This review summarizes the soil contamination by heavy metal(loid)s at a global scale, accumulation of heavy metal(loid)s in vegetables to toxic levels and their regulatory guidelines in soil. In this review, we also elucidate and compare the pool of available technologies that are currently being applied for remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils, as well as the economic aspect of soil remediation for different techniques. This review article includes an assessment of the contemporary status of technology deployment and recommendations for future remediation research. Finally, the molecular and genetic basis of heavy metal(loid) (hyper)accumulation and tolerance in microbes and plants is also discussed. It is proposed that for effective and economic remediation of soil, a better understanding of remediation procedures and the various options available at the different stages of remediation is highly necessary.
TL;DR: Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with available risk assessment data, may be useful to identify possible future PS candidates.
Abstract: The contamination of fresh water is a global concern. The huge impact of natural and anthropogenic organic substances that are constantly released into the environment, demands a better knowledge of the chemical status of Earth's surface water. Water quality monitoring studies have been performed targeting different substances and/or classes of substances, in different regions of the world, using different types of sampling strategies and campaigns. This review article aims to gather the available dispersed information regarding the occurrence of priority substances (PSs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that must be monitored in Europe in surface water, according to the European Union Directive 2013/39/EU and the Watch List of Decision 2015/495/EU, respectively. Other specific organic pollutants not considered in these EU documents as substances of high concern, but with reported elevated frequency of detection at high concentrations, are also discussed. The search comprised worldwide publications from 2012, considering at least one of the following criteria: 4 sampling campaigns per year, wet and dry seasons, temporal and/or spatial monitoring of surface (river, estuarine, lake and/or coastal waters) and ground waters. The highest concentrations were found for: (i) the PSs atrazine, alachlor, trifluralin, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; (ii) the CECs azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, imidacloprid and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate; and (iii) other unregulated organic compounds (caffeine, naproxen, metolachlor, estriol, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ketoprofen, atenolol, Bisphenol A, metoprolol, carbofuran, malathion, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and ofloxacin). Most frequent substances as well as those found at highest concentrations in different seasons and regions, together with available risk assessment data, may be useful to identify possible future PS candidates.
TL;DR: In this paper, the degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis under UVA (365 nm) irradiation was studied.
Abstract: Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis under UVA (365 nm) irradiation was studied. Enhancement of photocatalysis by addition of H2O2 was also evaluated. The results showed that no significant degradation occurred by 300-min UVA irradiation per se and pH had a great effect on antibiotic degradation. Photocatalytic reactions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics and the rate constants (k) were 0.007, 0.003 and 0.029 min− 1 for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. Addition of H2O2 at ambient pH ∼ 5 and TiO2 1.0 g/L resulted in complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in 30 min. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, and nitrate (NO3−), ammonia (NH3) and sulphate (SO42−) formation during degradation indicated mineralization of organic carbon, nitrogen and sulphur. UV/H2O2/TiO2 photocatalysis is effective for degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution.
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species.
Abstract: 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone, estradiol (E2). EE2 is an orally bio-active estrogen, and is one of the most commonly used medications for humans as well as livestock and aquaculture activity. EE2 has become a widespread problem in the environment due to its high resistance to the process of degradation and its tendency to (i) absorb organic matter, (ii) accumulate in sediment and (iii) concentrate in biota. Numerous studies have reported the ability of EE2 to alter sex determination, delay sexual maturity, and decrease the secondary sexual characteristics of exposed organisms even at a low concentration (ng/L) by mimicking its natural analogue, 17β-estradiol (E2). Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species. The challenges in respect of EE2 include the extension of the limited database on the EE2 pollution profile in the environment, its fate and transport mechanism, as well as the exposure level of EE2 for better prediction and definition revision of EE2 toxicity end points, notably for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.