Islamiat Abidemi Raji
Other affiliations: University of Jos
Bio: Islamiat Abidemi Raji is an academic researcher from University of KwaZulu-Natal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Frugivore & Seed dispersal. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 3 publications receiving 3 citations. Previous affiliations of Islamiat Abidemi Raji include University of Jos.
TL;DR: This paper reviewed case studies of vertebrate species' responses to urbanisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine trends and presented a novel modification to the final of three phases of the framework described by Evans et al. (2010).
Abstract: Urbanisation is rapidly transforming natural landscapes with consequences for biodiversity. Little is documented on the response of African wildlife to urbanisation. We reviewed case studies of vertebrate species' responses to urbanisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to determine trends. Connected habitat mosaics of natural and anthropogenic green spaces are critical for urban wildlife persistence. We present a novel modification to the final of three phases of the framework described by Evans et al. (2010), which documents this sequence for vertebrate species persistence, based on the perspective of our research. Species in suburbia exhibit an initial phase where behavioural and ecological flexibility, life-history traits and phenotypic plasticity either contribute to their success, or they stay at low numbers. Where successful, the next phase is a rapid increase in populations and distribution; anthropogenic food resources and alternate breeding sites are effectively exploited. The modified third phase either continues to spread, plateau or decline.
TL;DR: Investigating aspects of the relationship between mistletoes and bird species’ use and subsequent dispersal of the mistletoe on P. biglobosa trees in Nigeria highlighted the ecological importance of T. dodoneifolius within the reserve, particularly in enhancing the survival of other taxaWithin the reserve.
Abstract: The relationship between mistletoes and their host trees constitutes one of the unique host–parasite interactions in ecosystems. Most West African studies have reported on the parasitic nature of the relationship between Tapinanthus dodoneifolius mistletoes and Parkia biglobosa trees. However, there is little on bird species’ use and subsequent dispersal of the mistletoe on P. biglobosa, and consequently, we investigated aspects of this relationship in the present study. We conducted our study in Amurum Forest Reserve, located in the central part of Nigeria, from May to September 2017. The study area consists of a mosaic of savanna, gallery forest, and rocky outcrops. Of the bird community in this area, the yellow-fronted Tinkerbird Pogoniulus chrysoconus had the highest number of visits to T. dodoneifolius fruits, while the Senegal Eremomela Eremomela pusilla spent the most time foraging on the fruits. Four sunbird species were recorded feeding on T. dodoneifolius flowers for nectar; all but the Copper Sunbird Cinnyris cupreus were observed opening the flowers of T. dodoneifolius. Other bird species were recorded foraging on insects on T. dodoneifolius, and some simply perching on twigs or pecking on mistletoe fruits. This was a mutualistic relationship between the respective bird species and the mistletoe. This indirectly benefitted the parasitised host by attracting potential pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores for the host, hence, improving the rate of visitation to the host. These patterns of visitation behaviours highlighted the ecological importance of T. dodoneifolius within the reserve, particularly in enhancing the survival of other taxa within the reserve. Findings from this study contribute to developing more-nuanced conservation strategies for mixed high savannah habitat types across the tropics.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors systematically searched for studies on the distribution of Ficus spp. in Africa and their frugivore interactions together with the effects of land-use changes up until 2021.
Abstract: Land-use change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. It is predicted that conversion of land and habitats will increase rapidly over the next few decades in Africa. Over the years, these changes potentially reduced the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production for vertebrates. Ficus species (Moraceae), commonly known as figs, occupy diverse habitats and typically produce large numbers of nutritional fleshy fruits that are important to frugivores. However, a decline in Ficus spp. distribution because of land-use changes may negatively affect frugivores and their ecosystems (e.g. via seed dispersal). We systematically searched for studies on the distribution of Ficus spp. in Africa and their frugivore interactions together with the effects of land-use changes up until 2021. Our search resulted in 70 eligible papers. A total of 124 Ficus spp. were recorded across 30 African countries representing approximately 56% of the African countries. Cameroon had the highest record of 63 species, while Benin, Burundi, Ghana, and Rwanda had two, the least number of Ficus spp. recorded. East Africa had the highest Ficus spp. richness recorded (96 species), followed by southern Africa (74 species), Central and Northern Africa (72 species), and West Africa with the least (31 species) recorded. Information about the effect exerted by anthropogenic land-use changes on Ficus-frugivore interaction in Africa was limited. However, research has been conducted on the impact of anthropogenic land-use changes on plant-frugivore and frugivore feeding ecology. Ficus spp. fruit were identified as significant in the diets of various frugivores across Africa, as it is found globally. However, it is essential to understand the impacts of anthropogenic land-use changes on the mutual interaction between frugivores and Ficus spp. and the attendant consequences for ecosystem service provision.
TL;DR: In Africa, increasing human populations and anthropogenic land-use change are generally affecting diversity negatively as mentioned in this paper, but especially in Africa, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, a large number of people are migrating to the region.
Abstract: Globally, but especially in Africa, increasing human populations and anthropogenic land-use change are generally affecting diversity negatively. Urban environments in southern Africa typically comp...
26 Jun 2013
TL;DR: It is suggested that mistletoe specialist frugivores are better considered exploitative, with multiple lineages evolving independently to capitalize on this reliable, nutritious resource.
Abstract: Many plants use birds to disperse their propagules, but mistletoes are especially reliant on their services. As aerial parasites, mistletoe seeds need to be deposited upon branches of suitable hosts, and mistletoe specialist frugivores (from eight different avian families) have long been regarded as their coevolved dispersers. Like the pioneer Johnny ‘Appleseed’ Chapman who established nurseries that helped open up land for settlement, these birds are considered benevolent dispersers of this keystone resource and often invoked as illustrative examples of mutualistic interactions. We have compared recent research on these specialists with studies of other birds with broader diets (generalists) which also disperse mistletoe seed. Rather than mutualists, we suggest that mistletoe specialist frugivores are better considered exploitative, with multiple lineages evolving independently to capitalize on this reliable, nutritious resource. Although mistletoe specialist frugivores are quantitatively important seed dispersers in some regions, their specialized diet restricts them to areas with high mistletoe densities, resulting in contagious dispersal patterns. By intensifying existing infections, mistletoe specialist frugivores increase their own medium-term food security—akin to market gardeners profiting from intensive cultivation. Exploring the ecological and evolutionary implications of this proposition, we evaluate the consequences of different dispersal patterns on mistletoe fitness and highlight the neglected role of dietary generalists in the stabilization of plant–animal interactions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide the first comprehensive development and management guidelines for eco-estates, reviewed and assessed research into the effects of eco-estate development on environmental functionality and connectivity using case studies from coastal KwaZulu-Natal.
TL;DR: In this paper , a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of urban environments on three components of trophic ecology in predators: dietary species richness, dietary evenness and stable isotopic ratios (IRs).
Abstract: Predation is a fundamental ecological process that shapes communities and drives evolutionary dynamics. As the world rapidly urbanizes, it is critical to understand how human perturbations alter predation and meat consumption across taxa. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the effects of urban environments on three components of trophic ecology in predators: dietary species richness, dietary evenness and stable isotopic ratios (IRs) (δ13C and δ15N IR). We evaluated whether the intensity of anthropogenic pressure, using the human footprint index (HFI), explained variation in effect sizes of dietary attributes using a meta-regression. We calculated Hedges’ g effect sizes from 44 studies including 11 986 samples across 40 predatory species in 39 cities globally. The direction and magnitude of effect sizes varied among predator taxa with reptilian diets exhibiting the most sensitivity to urbanization. Effect sizes revealed that predators in cities had comparable diet richness, evenness and nitrogen ratios, though carbon IRs were more enriched in cities. We found that neither the 1993 nor 2009 HFI editions explained effect size variation. Our study provides, to our knowledge, the first assessment of how urbanization has perturbed predator–prey interactions for multiple taxa at a global scale. We conclude that the functional role of predators is conserved in cities and urbanization does not inherently relax predation, despite diets broadening to include anthropogenic food sources such as sugar, wheat and corn.
TL;DR: In this article , the current and future (2050s and 2070s) potential distribution of 50 threatened woody species in Xishuangbanna by using an ensemble of small models, then stacked the predictions for individual species to derive spatial biodiversity patterns within each 10 × 10 km grid cell.