Bio: İsmail Polat is an academic researcher from Karadeniz Technical University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Thin film & Wurtzite crystal structure. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 40 publications receiving 577 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnTe films were investigated as a function of substrate temperature (at −123 and 27°C) and post-deposition annealing temperature ( at 200, 300 and 400°C).
Abstract: The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnTe films deposited by evaporation were investigated as a function of substrate temperature (at −123 and 27 °C) and post-deposition annealing temperature (at 200, 300 and 400 °C). It was determined that films deposited at both substrate temperatures were polycrystalline in nature with zinc-blende structure and a strong (1 1 1) texture. A small Te peak was detected in XRD spectra for both substrate temperatures, indicating that as-deposited ZnTe films were slightly rich in Te. Larger grains and a tighter grain size distribution were obtained with increased substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the microstructures of the as-deposited films agreed well with the expectations from structure zone model. Post-deposition annealing induced further grain growth and tightened the grain size distribution. Annealing at 400 °C resulted in randomization in the texture of films deposited at both substrate temperatures. Optical spectroscopy results of the films indicated that the optical band gap value increased from 2.13 to 2.16 eV with increased substrate temperature. Increasing the annealing temperature sharpened the band-edge. Resistivity measurements showed that the resistivity of films deposited at substrate temperatures of −123 and 27 °C were 32 Ω cm, and 1.0 × 104 Ω cm, respectively with corresponding carrier concentrations of 8.9 × 1015 cm−3 and 1.5 × 1014 cm−3. Annealing caused opposite changes in the film resistivity between the samples prepared at substrate temperatures of −123 and 27 °C.
TL;DR: The effect of diffusion doping on CdS thin films has been investigated by studying the changes in the structural, optical and magnetic properties of the films as discussed by the authors, which showed that the incorporation of Mn did not cause any change in the texture but reduced the peak intensity and lead to a smaller crystallite size.
Abstract: The effect of Mn-doping on the vacuum deposited CdS thin films has been investigated by studying the changes in the structural, optical and magnetic properties of the films. A thin Mn layer evaporated on the CdS film surface served as the source layer for the diffusion doping. Doping was accomplished by annealing the CdS/Mn stack layers at the temperature range from 300 °C to 400 °C in step of 50 °C for 30 min under vacuum. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the undoped CdS film had a zinc-blende structure with a strong preferred orientation along the (1 1 1) direction. The incorporation of Mn did not cause any change in the texture but reduced the peak intensity and lead to a smaller crystallite size. Investigation of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy confirmed the decrease in the grain size with the Mn diffusion. In addition, a more uniform grain size distribution was observed in the doped films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that Mn atoms on the surface of the films were bounded to either sulphur or oxygen atoms. Auger electron spectroscopy of the diffusion-doped CdS sample at 350 °C indicated that the atomic Mn concentration was higher close to the surface region and Mn was distributed with a steadily decreasing profile through the bulk of the film with an average atomic concentration value around few percent. Band gap energy of the undoped sample decreased from 2.42 to 2.36 eV upon Mn diffusion at 400 °C. The magnetization of films as a function of magnetic field and temperature were measured. Clear ferromagnetic loops were observed for the Mn diffusion-doped CdS films prepared by annealing above 350 °C.
TL;DR: In this article, the structural and optical properties of CdS films deposited by evaporation were investigated and the forward bias currentvoltage (I-V) characteristics of Cu/CdS/SnO2/In-Ga structures have been investigated in the temperature range of 130-325 K.
Abstract: The structural and optical properties of CdS films deposited by evaporation were investigated. X-ray diffraction study showed that CdS films were polycrystalline in nature with zinc-blende structure and a strong (1 1 1) texture. The study has been made on the behavior of Cu/n-CdS thin film junction on SnO2 coated glass substrate grown using thermal evaporation method. The forward bias current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Cu/CdS/SnO2/In–Ga structures have been investigated in the temperature range of 130–325 K. The semi-logarithmic lnI–V characteristics based on the Thermionic emission (TE) mechanism showed a decrease in the ideality factor (n) and an increase in the zero-bias barrier height (ΦBo) with the increasing temperature. The values of n and ΦBo change from 8.98 and 0.29 eV (at 130 K) to 3.42 and 0.72 eV (at 325 K), respectively. The conventional Richardson plot of the ln(Io/T2) vs q/kT shows nonlinear behavior. The forward bias current I is found to be proportional to Io(T)exp(AV), where A is the slope of ln(I)–V plot and almost independent of the applied bias voltage and temperature, and Io(T) is relatively a weak function of temperature. These results indicate that the mechanism of charge transport in the SnO2/CdS/Cu structure in the whole temperature range is performed by tunneling among interface states/traps or dislocations intersecting the space-charge region. In addition, voltage dependent values of resistance (R i ) were obtained from forward and reverse bias I–V characteristics by using Ohm's law for each temperature level.
TL;DR: The photocatalytic properties of undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were studied for the first time in this paper.
Abstract: Undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods with different copper contents were produced on glass substrates. The structural and optical properties of the samples were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Irrespective of the Cu content in ZnO nanorods, X-ray diffraction results showed that all the ZnO nanorods had a hexagonal structure with a strong preferred orientation along (002) direction. SEM results indicated that increasing Cu content caused a change from the pyramidal geometry to a hexagonal rod shape in the morphology of ZnO. Photoluminescence measurements exhibited two emission bands in the spectra: one sharp ultraviolet luminescence at ∼379 nm and one broad visible emission ranging from 400 to 720 nm. The photocatalytic properties of undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were studied for the first time in this study by using photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB, 9.4 × 10 −6 M) as a model chemical.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of K-doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdS:Ga thin films are examined, which can be used for solar cell devices.
Abstract: In the presented work, Ga-doped CdS and (Ga-K)-co-doped CdS thin films are grown on glass substrates at a temperature of 400 °C through spray pyrolysis. Influence of K-doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical characteristics of CdS:Ga thin films are examined. K level is changed from 1 at% to 5 at% for CdS:Ga samples just as Ga concentration is fixed 2 at% for all CdS thin films. It is observed from the X-ray diffraction data that all the samples exhibit hexagonal structure and an increase level of K in Ga-doped CdS samples causes a degradation in the crystal quality. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements illustrate that the best stoichiometric film is acquired when K content is 2 at% in Ga-doped CdS films. Optical transmission curves demonstrate that CdS:Ga thin films exhibit the best optical transparency in the visible range for 4 at% K content compared to other specimens. A widening in the optical bandgap is unveiled after K-dopings. It is obtained that maximum band gap value is found as 2.45 eV for 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at%. K -dopings while Ga-doped CdS thin films display the band gap value of 2.43 eV. From photoluminescence measurements, the most intensified peak is observed in the deep level emission after incorporation of the 4 at% K atoms. As for electrical characterization results, the resistivity reduces and the carrier density improves with the increase of K concentration from 1 at% to 4 at%. Based on all the data, it can be deduced that 4 at% K-doped CdS:Ga thin films show the best optical and electrical behavior, which can be utilized for solar cell devices.
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of zinc oxide (ZnO) has been improved by tailoring its surface-bulk structure and altering its photogenerated charge transfer pathways with an intention to inhibit the surfacebulk charge carrier recombination.
Abstract: As an alternative to the gold standard TiO2 photocatalyst, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) as a robust candidate for wastewater treatment is widespread due to its similarity in charge carrier dynamics upon bandgap excitation and the generation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous suspensions with TiO2. However, the large bandgap of ZnO, the massive charge carrier recombination, and the photoinduced corrosion–dissolution at extreme pH conditions, together with the formation of inert Zn(OH)2 during photocatalytic reactions act as barriers for its extensive applicability. To this end, research has been intensified to improve the performance of ZnO by tailoring its surface-bulk structure and by altering its photogenerated charge transfer pathways with an intention to inhibit the surface-bulk charge carrier recombination. For the first time, the several strategies, such as tailoring the intrinsic defects, surface modification with organic compounds, doping with foreign ions, noble metal deposition, heterostructuring with other semiconductors and modification with carbon nanostructures, which have been successfully employed to improve the photoactivity and stability of ZnO are critically reviewed. Such modifications enhance the charge separation and facilitate the generation of reactive oxygenated free radicals, and also the interaction with the pollutant molecules. The synthetic route to obtain hierarchical nanostructured morphologies and study their impact on the photocatalytic performance is explained by considering the morphological influence and the defect-rich chemistry of ZnO. Finally, the crystal facet engineering of polar and non-polar facets and their relevance in photocatalysis is outlined. It is with this intention that the present review directs the further design, tailoring and tuning of the physico-chemical and optoelectronic properties of ZnO for better applications, ranging from photocatalysis to photovoltaics.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically.
Abstract: Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light.
01 Jan 1966
TL;DR: In this article, Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe 2 O 4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe 2 O 4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe 2 O 4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV–Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization ( M s ) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe 2 O 4 nanostructures. The M s value of CoFe 2 O 4 -SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe 2 O 4 -FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher M s value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe 2 O 4 -SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.
TL;DR: In this article, aqueous-processed CuSCN hole-transport layers (HTLs) are used to construct planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells.
Abstract: This study reports the development of copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole-transport layers (HTLs) processed from aqueous ammonia as a novel alternative to conventional n-alkyl sulfide solvents. Wide bandgap (3.4–3.9 eV) and ultrathin (3–5 nm) layers of CuSCN are formed when the aqueous CuSCN–ammine complex solution is spin-cast in air and annealed at 100 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the high compositional purity of the formed CuSCN layers, while the high-resolution valence band spectra agree with first-principles calculations. Study of the hole-transport properties using field-effect transistor measurements reveals that the aqueous-processed CuSCN layers exhibit a fivefold higher hole mobility than films processed from diethyl sulfide solutions with the maximum values approaching 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. A further interesting characteristic is the low surface roughness of the resulting CuSCN layers, which in the case of solar cells helps to planarize the indium tin oxide anode. Organic bulk heterojunction and planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells based on aqueous-processed CuSCN HTLs yield power conversion efficiency of 10.7% and 17.5%, respectively. Importantly, aqueous-processed CuSCN-based cells consistently outperform devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate HTLs. This is the first report on CuSCN films and devices processed via an aqueous-based synthetic route that is compatible with high-throughput manufacturing and paves the way for further developments.