Author

# Ivan Catton

Other affiliations: University of California, Douglas Aircraft Company

Bio: Ivan Catton is an academic researcher from University of California, Los Angeles. The author has contributed to research in topics: Heat transfer & Heat flux. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 224 publications receiving 4752 citations. Previous affiliations of Ivan Catton include University of California & Douglas Aircraft Company.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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01 Jan 1978345 citations

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TL;DR: The Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) as mentioned in this paper evaluation methodology combines a top-down approach to define the dominant phenomena with a bottom-up approach to quantify uncertainty.

197 citations

01 Nov 1974

TL;DR: In this article, the spacing between the hot solar absorber and successive glass covers should be in the range 4 to 8 cm to assure minimum gap conductance, based on the theory and some experimental measurements.

Abstract: A useful solar-thermal converter requires effective control of heat losses from the hot absorber to the cooler surroundings. Based upon the theory and some experimental measurements it is shown that the spacing between the tilted hot solar absorber and successive glass covers should be in the range 4 to 8 cm to assure minimum gap conductance. Poor choice of spacing can significantly affect thermal conversion efficiency, particularly when the efficiency is low or when selective black absorbers are used. Recommended data for gap Nusselt number are presented as a function of the Rayleigh number for the high aspect ratios of interest in solar collector designs. It is also shown that a rectangular cell structure placed over a solar absorber is an effective device to suppress natural convection, if designed with the proper cell spacing d, height to spacing ratio L/d and width to spacing ratio W/d needed to give a cell Rayleigh number less than the critical value.

172 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared three monoporous and 19 biporous wicks and found that the monoporous wick can reach higher critical heat flux (CHF) than thin biporous Wicks because they developed evaporating menisci not only on top surface of wick but also inside the wick.

169 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the spacing between the hot solar absorber and successive glass covers should be in the range 4 to 8 cm to assure minimum gap conductance, based on the theory and some experimental measurements.

Abstract: A useful solar-thermal converter requires effective control of heat losses from the hot absorber to the cooler surroundings. Based upon the theory and some experimental measurements it is shown that the spacing between the tilted hot solar absorber and successive glass covers should be in the range 4 to 8 cm to assure minimum gap conductance. Poor choice of spacing can significantly affect thermal conversion efficiency, particularly when the efficiency is low or when selective black absorbers are used. Recommended data for gap Nusselt number are presented as a function of the Rayleigh number for the high aspect ratios of interest in solar collector designs. It is also shown that a rectangular cell structure placed over a solar absorber is an effective device to suppress natural convection, if designed with the proper cell spacing d, height to spacing ratio L/d and width to spacing ratio W/d needed to give a cell Rayleigh number less than the critical value.

169 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.

Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented in this article, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments, and a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q 0 and frequency ω 0 of the instability.

Abstract: A comprehensive review of spatiotemporal pattern formation in systems driven away from equilibrium is presented, with emphasis on comparisons between theory and quantitative experiments. Examples include patterns in hydrodynamic systems such as thermal convection in pure fluids and binary mixtures, Taylor-Couette flow, parametric-wave instabilities, as well as patterns in solidification fronts, nonlinear optics, oscillatory chemical reactions and excitable biological media. The theoretical starting point is usually a set of deterministic equations of motion, typically in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations. These are sometimes supplemented by stochastic terms representing thermal or instrumental noise, but for macroscopic systems and carefully designed experiments the stochastic forces are often negligible. An aim of theory is to describe solutions of the deterministic equations that are likely to be reached starting from typical initial conditions and to persist at long times. A unified description is developed, based on the linear instabilities of a homogeneous state, which leads naturally to a classification of patterns in terms of the characteristic wave vector q0 and frequency ω0 of the instability. Type Is systems (ω0=0, q0≠0) are stationary in time and periodic in space; type IIIo systems (ω0≠0, q0=0) are periodic in time and uniform in space; and type Io systems (ω0≠0, q0≠0) are periodic in both space and time. Near a continuous (or supercritical) instability, the dynamics may be accurately described via "amplitude equations," whose form is universal for each type of instability. The specifics of each system enter only through the nonuniversal coefficients. Far from the instability threshold a different universal description known as the "phase equation" may be derived, but it is restricted to slow distortions of an ideal pattern. For many systems appropriate starting equations are either not known or too complicated to analyze conveniently. It is thus useful to introduce phenomenological order-parameter models, which lead to the correct amplitude equations near threshold, and which may be solved analytically or numerically in the nonlinear regime away from the instability. The above theoretical methods are useful in analyzing "real pattern effects" such as the influence of external boundaries, or the formation and dynamics of defects in ideal structures. An important element in nonequilibrium systems is the appearance of deterministic chaos. A greal deal is known about systems with a small number of degrees of freedom displaying "temporal chaos," where the structure of the phase space can be analyzed in detail. For spatially extended systems with many degrees of freedom, on the other hand, one is dealing with spatiotemporal chaos and appropriate methods of analysis need to be developed. In addition to the general features of nonequilibrium pattern formation discussed above, detailed reviews of theoretical and experimental work on many specific systems are presented. These include Rayleigh-Benard convection in a pure fluid, convection in binary-fluid mixtures, electrohydrodynamic convection in nematic liquid crystals, Taylor-Couette flow between rotating cylinders, parametric surface waves, patterns in certain open flow systems, oscillatory chemical reactions, static and dynamic patterns in biological media, crystallization fronts, and patterns in nonlinear optics. A concluding section summarizes what has and has not been accomplished, and attempts to assess the prospects for the future.

6,145 citations

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TL;DR: The 1990 National Academy of Science final report of its review of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program recommended completion of a series of target physics objectives on the 10-beam Nova laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the highest priority prerequisite for proceeding with construction of an ignition-scale laser facility as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: The 1990 National Academy of Science final report of its review of the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program recommended completion of a series of target physics objectives on the 10-beam Nova laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the highest-priority prerequisite for proceeding with construction of an ignition-scale laser facility, now called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These objectives were chosen to demonstrate that there was sufficient understanding of the physics of ignition targets that the laser requirements for laboratory ignition could be accurately specified. This research on Nova, as well as additional research on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester, is the subject of this review. The objectives of the U.S. indirect-drive target physics program have been to experimentally demonstrate and predictively model hohlraum characteristics, as well as capsule performance in targets that have been scaled in key physics variables from NIF targets. To address the hohlrau...

1,601 citations

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Virginia Tech

^{1}TL;DR: A comprehensive and systematic development of the basic concepts, principles, and procedures for verification and validation of models and simulations that are described by partial differential and integral equations and the simulations that result from their numerical solution.

Abstract: Advances in scientific computing have made modelling and simulation an important part of the decision-making process in engineering, science, and public policy. This book provides a comprehensive and systematic development of the basic concepts, principles, and procedures for verification and validation of models and simulations. The emphasis is placed on models that are described by partial differential and integral equations and the simulations that result from their numerical solution. The methods described can be applied to a wide range of technical fields, from the physical sciences, engineering and technology and industry, through to environmental regulations and safety, product and plant safety, financial investing, and governmental regulations. This book will be genuinely welcomed by researchers, practitioners, and decision makers in a broad range of fields, who seek to improve the credibility and reliability of simulation results. It will also be appropriate either for university courses or for independent study.

966 citations