Author

# J. A. Bearden

Bio: J. A. Bearden is an academic researcher from Johns Hopkins University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Energy (signal processing) & Absolute scale. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 2954 citations.

##### Papers

More filters

••

TL;DR: In this article, the x-ray emission wavelengths have been reevaluated and placed on a consistent \AA{}* scale, which makes "best" use of all xray wavelength data, and also permits calculation of the probable error for each energy difference.

Abstract: All of the x-ray emission wavelengths have recently been reevaluated and placed on a consistent \AA{}* scale. For most elements these data give a highly overdetermined set of equations for energy level differences, which have been solved by least-squares adjustment for each case. This procedure makes "best" use of all x-ray wavelength data, and also permits calculation of the probable error for each energy difference. Photoelectron measurements of absolute energy levels are more precise than x-ray absorption edge data. These have been used to establish the absolute scale for eighty-one elements and, in many cases, to provide additional energy level difference data. The x-ray absorption wavelengths were used for eight elements and ionization measurements for two; the remaining five were interpolated by a Moseley diagram involving the output values of energy levels from adjacent elements. Probable errors are listed on an absolute energy basis. In the original source of the present data, a table of energy levels in Rydberg units is given. Difference tables in volts, Rydbergs, and milli-\AA{}* wavelength units, with the respective probable errors, are also included there.

1,598 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, a review of the experimental measurements which are used to establish the wavelength of this line on an absolute angstrom basis is given, and the recommended wavelength values are listed in \AA{}* units together with probable errors; corresponding energies are given in keV.

Abstract: Inconsistencies in accepted values (in x units) of x-ray reference lines have recently been demonstrated, although all are supposedly based on "good" calcite crystals. Factors supporting the selection of the W $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$ line as the X-Ray Wavelength Standard are critically discussed. A review is given of the experimental measurements which are used to establish the wavelength of this line on an absolute angstrom basis. Its value is $\ensuremath{\lambda}$ W $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}=(0.2090100\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}5 \mathrm{ppm})$ \AA{}. This may be used to define a new unit, denoted by \AA{}*, such that the W $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$ wavelength is exactly 0.2090100 \AA{}*; hence 1\AA{}*=1\AA{}\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}5 ppm. The wavelengths of the Ag $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$, Mo $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$, Cu $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{1}$, and the Cr $K{\ensuremath{\alpha}}_{2}$ have been established as secondary standards with probable error of approximately one part per million. Sixty-one additional x-ray lines have been used as reference values in a comprehensive review and reevaluation of more than 2700 emission and absorption wavelengths. The recommended wavelength values are listed in \AA{}* units together with probable errors; corresponding energies are given in keV. A second table lists the wavelengths in numerical order, and likewise includes their energies in keV.

1,467 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

••

TL;DR: In this paper, relativistic calculations of the photoelectric cross section have been made and the integral for the principal contribution to Δf′ has been evaluated numerically without approximation to the form of the cross section-vs-energy curve, as has been done in previous calculations.

Abstract: Anomalous scattering factors Δf′ and Δf″ have been calculated relativistically for Cr, Fe, Cu, Mo, and Ag Kα radiations for the atoms Li through Cf. An interpolation scheme for other wavelengths is included in a separate report. Relativistic calculations of the photoelectric cross section have been made and the integral for the principal contribution to Δf′ has been evaluated numerically without approximation to the form of the cross section‐vs‐energy curve, as has been done in previous calculations. Many of the results are significantly different from previous calculations. Where experimental values exist, agreement for Δf″ is improved. For the rare gases, except for xenon, agreement between Δf′ and experiment is improved. Because of the more rigorous evaluation of Δf′ from cross‐section information, it is presumed that the present Δf′ values are more accurate than previous calculated values. Calculated mass absorption coefficients for the elements are included as incidental information.

2,698 citations

01 Jan 2009

TL;DR: The PENELOPE as mentioned in this paper computer code system performs Monte Carlo simulation of coupled electron-photon transport in arbitrary materials for a wide energy range, from a few hundred eV to about 1 GeV.

Abstract: The computer code system PENELOPE (version 2008) performs Monte Carlo simulation of coupled
electron-photon transport in arbitrary materials for a wide energy range, from a few hundred eV to
about 1 GeV. Photon transport is simulated by means of the standard, detailed simulation scheme.
Electron and positron histories are generated on the basis of a mixed procedure, which combines
detailed simulation of hard events with condensed simulation of soft interactions. A geometry package
called PENGEOM permits the generation of random electron-photon showers in material systems
consisting of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces, i.e., planes, spheres, cylinders, etc. This
report is intended not only to serve as a manual of the PENELOPE code system, but also to provide the
user with the necessary information to understand the details of the Monte Carlo algorithm.

1,675 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, the x-ray emission wavelengths have been reevaluated and placed on a consistent \AA{}* scale, which makes "best" use of all xray wavelength data, and also permits calculation of the probable error for each energy difference.

Abstract: All of the x-ray emission wavelengths have recently been reevaluated and placed on a consistent \AA{}* scale. For most elements these data give a highly overdetermined set of equations for energy level differences, which have been solved by least-squares adjustment for each case. This procedure makes "best" use of all x-ray wavelength data, and also permits calculation of the probable error for each energy difference. Photoelectron measurements of absolute energy levels are more precise than x-ray absorption edge data. These have been used to establish the absolute scale for eighty-one elements and, in many cases, to provide additional energy level difference data. The x-ray absorption wavelengths were used for eight elements and ionization measurements for two; the remaining five were interpolated by a Moseley diagram involving the output values of energy levels from adjacent elements. Probable errors are listed on an absolute energy basis. In the original source of the present data, a table of energy levels in Rydberg units is given. Difference tables in volts, Rydbergs, and milli-\AA{}* wavelength units, with the respective probable errors, are also included there.

1,598 citations

••

1,560 citations

••

TL;DR: The present status of the field of fluorescence yields, radiationless (Auger and Coster-Kronig) and radiative transition probabilities is summarized in this article, where experimental and theoretical results are included, and tables of best values of important quantities are presented.

Abstract: The present status of the field of fluorescence yields, radiationless (Auger and Coster-Kronig) and radiative transition probabilities is summarized. Tables of experimental and theoretical results are included, and tables of "best values" of important quantities are presented.

1,511 citations