Author

# J. H. Eberly

Bio: J. H. Eberly is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fokker–Planck equation. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 3185 citations.

Topics: Fokker–Planck equation

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report, extend, and interpret much of our current understanding relating to theories of noise-activated escape, for which many of the notable contributions are originating from the communities both of physics and of physical chemistry.

Abstract: The calculation of rate coefficients is a discipline of nonlinear science of importance to much of physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. Fifty years after Kramers' seminal paper on thermally activated barrier crossing, the authors report, extend, and interpret much of our current understanding relating to theories of noise-activated escape, for which many of the notable contributions are originating from the communities both of physics and of physical chemistry. Theoretical as well as numerical approaches are discussed for single- and many-dimensional metastable systems (including fields) in gases and condensed phases. The role of many-dimensional transition-state theory is contrasted with Kramers' reaction-rate theory for moderate-to-strong friction; the authors emphasize the physical situation and the close connection between unimolecular rate theory and Kramers' work for weakly damped systems. The rate theory accounting for memory friction is presented, together with a unifying theoretical approach which covers the whole regime of weak-to-moderate-to-strong friction on the same basis (turnover theory). The peculiarities of noise-activated escape in a variety of physically different metastable potential configurations is elucidated in terms of the mean-first-passage-time technique. Moreover, the role and the complexity of escape in driven systems exhibiting possibly multiple, metastable stationary nonequilibrium states is identified. At lower temperatures, quantum tunneling effects start to dominate the rate mechanism. The early quantum approaches as well as the latest quantum versions of Kramers' theory are discussed, thereby providing a description of dissipative escape events at all temperatures. In addition, an attempt is made to discuss prominent experimental work as it relates to Kramers' reaction-rate theory and to indicate the most important areas for future research in theory and experiment.

5,180 citations

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01 Jan 1991

TL;DR: The distinction between level clustering and level repulsion is one of the quantum analogues of the classical distinction between globally regular and predominantly chaotic motion (see Figs. 1, 2, 3) as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: The distinction between level clustering and level repulsion is one of the quantum analogues of the classical distinction between globally regular and predominantly chaotic motion (see Figs. 1, 2, 3). In order to reveal level repulsion under conditions of global classical chaos special care may be necessary: (i) subspectra referring to different values of the quantum numbers related to symmetries must be dealt with separately and (ii) for systems with quantum localization only levels whose wavefunctions have overlapping support must be admitted. A “level” may either be an energy eigenvalue E in the case of autonomous systems or, for periodically driven systems, a quasi-energy φ, i.e. an eigenphase of the unitary Floquet operator transporting the wavevector from period to period.

2,495 citations

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17 Aug 2010TL;DR: The Fokker-Planck equation as mentioned in this paper describes the evolution of conditional probability density for given initial states for a Markov process, which satisfies the Ito stochastic differential equation.

Abstract: In 1984, H. Risken authored a book (H. Risken, The Fokker-Planck Equation: Methods of Solution, Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York) discussing the Fokker-Planck equation for one variable, several variables, methods of solution and its applications, especially dealing with laser statistics. There has been a considerable progress on the topic as well as the topic has received greater clarity. For these reasons, it seems worthwhile again to summarize previous as well as recent developments, spread in literature, on the topic. The Fokker-Planck equation describes the evolution of conditional probability density for given initial states for a Markov process, which satisfies the Ito stochastic differential equation. The structure of the Fokker-Planck equation for the vector case is

1,762 citations

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TL;DR: The dynamics of networks of sparsely connected excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons are studied analytically, revealing a rich repertoire of states, including synchronous states in which neurons fire regularly; asynchronous states with stationary global activity and very irregular individual cell activity; andStates in which the global activity oscillates but individual cells fire irregularly.

Abstract: The dynamics of networks of sparsely connected excitatory and inhibitory integrate-and-fire neurons are studied analytically. The analysis reveals a rich repertoire of states, including synchronous states in which neurons fire regularly; asynchronous states with stationary global activity and very irregular individual cell activity; and states in which the global activity oscillates but individual cells fire irregularly, typically at rates lower than the global oscillation frequency. The network can switch between these states, provided the external frequency, or the balance between excitation and inhibition, is varied. Two types of network oscillations are observed. In the fast oscillatory state, the network frequency is almost fully controlled by the synaptic time scale. In the slow oscillatory state, the network frequency depends mostly on the membrane time constant. Finite size effects in the asynchronous state are also discussed.

1,758 citations

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TL;DR: A review of the fundamental and technological aspects of these subjects can be found in this article, where the focus is mainly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science.

Abstract: Jets, ie collimated streams of matter, occur from the microscale up to the large-scale structure of the universe Our focus will be mostly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science, for example in nuclear fission, DNA sampling, medical diagnostics, sprays, agricultural irrigation and jet engine technology Liquid jets thus serve as a paradigm for free-surface motion, hydrodynamic instability and singularity formation leading to drop breakup In addition to their practical usefulness, jets are an ideal probe for liquid properties, such as surface tension, viscosity or non-Newtonian rheology They also arise from the last but one topology change of liquid masses bursting into sprays Jet dynamics are sensitive to the turbulent or thermal excitation of the fluid, as well as to the surrounding gas or fluid medium The aim of this review is to provide a unified description of the fundamental and the technological aspects of these subjects

1,583 citations