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J.L. Blue

Bio: J.L. Blue is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Noise figure & Noise spectral density. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 229 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
H.K. Gummel1, J.L. Blue
TL;DR: In this paper, a general small-signal theory of the avalanche noise in IMPATT diodes is presented, which is applicable to structures of arbitrary doping profile and uses realistic (α eq \beta in Si) ionization coefficients.
Abstract: A general small-signal theory of the avalanche noise in IMPATT diodes is presented. The theory is applicable to structures of arbitrary doping profile and uses realistic ( \alpha eq \beta in Si) ionization coefficients. The theory accounts in a self-consistent manner for space-charge feedback effects in the avalanche and drift regions. Two single-diffused n-p diodes of identical doping profile, one of germanium and the other of silicon, are analyzed in detail. For description of the noise of the diodes as small-signal amplifiers the noise measure M is used. Values for M of 20 dB are obtained in germanium from effects in the depletion region only, i.e., when parasitic end region resistance is neglected. Inclusion of an assumed parasitic end resistance of one ohm for a diode of area 10-4cm2produces the following noise measure at an input power of 5×104W/cm2, and at optimum frequency: germanium 25 dB, silicon 31 dB. For comparison, a noise figure of 30 dB has been reported [1] for a germanium structure of the same doping profile as used in the calculations. Measurements of silicon diodes of the same doping profile are not available, but typically silicon diodes give 6-8 dB higher noise figures than germanium diodes of comparable doping profile.

233 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
W.N. Grant1
TL;DR: In this article, the ionization rates for electrons and holes were extracted from photomultiplication measurements on silicon p+n mesa diodes for electric fields of 2·0 × 105−7·7 × 105 V/cm at temperatures of 22, 50, 100 and 150°C.
Abstract: Ionization rates for electrons and holes are extracted from photomultiplication measurements on silicon p+n mesa diodes for electric fields of 2·0 × 105−7·7 × 105 V/cm at temperatures of 22, 50, 100 and 150°C. These results are particularly pertinent to the analysis of high-frequency (∼ 100 GHz) silicon IMPATT diodes. The rates obtained here are in reasonable agreement with previously published data of van Overstraeten and DeMan, although slightly larger in magnitude. Calculated curves of breakdown voltage vs background doping level are presented using the room temperature ionization rates. Also a comparison is made to previously reported rates. The new rates provide a closer agreement between predicted and measured breakdown voltages for breakdown voltages less than 70 V.

433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1970
TL;DR: In this article, a survey of the most important noise problems in solid-state devices is given, including shot noise in metal-semiconductor diodes, p-n junctions, and transistors at low injection.
Abstract: A survey is given of the most important noise problems in solid-state devices. Section II discusses shot noise in metal-semiconductor diodes, p-n junctions, and transistors at low injection; noise due to recombination and generation in the junction space-charge region; high-level injection effects; noise in photodiodes, avalanche diodes, and diode particle detectors, and shot noise in the leakage currents in field-effect transistors (FETs). Section III discusses thermal noise and induced gate noise in FETs; generation-recombination noise in FETs and transistors at low temperatures; noise due to recombination centers in the space-charge region(s) of FETs, and noise in space-charge-limited solid-state diodes. Section IV attempts to give a unified account of 1/f noise in solid-state devices in terms of the fluctuating occupancy of traps in the surface oxide; discusses the kinetics of these traps; applies this to flicker noise in junction diodes, transistors, and FETs, and briefly discusses flicker noise in Gunn diodes and burst noise in junction diodes and transistors. Section V discusses shot noise in the light emission of luminescent diodes and lasers, and noise in optical heterodyning. Section VI discusses circuit applications. It deals with the noise figure of negative conductance amplifiers (tunnel diodes and parametric amplifiers), and of FET, transistor, and mixer circuits. In the latter discussion capacitive up-converters, and diode, FET, and transistor mixers are dealt with.

233 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
S.M. Sze1, R.M. Ryder
01 Aug 1971
TL;DR: A brief review summarizes mechanisms of operation, power output, efficiency, noise, and some important features of design and fabrication of microwave avalanche diodes of various types.
Abstract: Microwave avalanche diodes of various types (IMPATT, TRAPATT, etc.) can generate power sufficient for microwave receivers and some transmitters. This brief review summarizes mechanisms of operation, power output, efficiency, noise, and some important features of design and fabrication.

112 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the potentiality of impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on different semiconductor materials such as GaAs, Si, InP, 4H-SiC and Wurtzite-GaN was explored for operation at terahertz frequencies.
Abstract: In this paper the potentiality of impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on different semiconductor materials such as GaAs, Si, InP, 4H-SiC and Wurtzite-GaN (Wz-GaN) has been explored for operation at terahertz frequencies. Drift–diffusion model is used to design double-drift region (DDR) IMPATTs based on different materials at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) frequencies. The performance limitations of these devices are studied from the avalanche response times at different mm-wave and THz frequencies. Results show that the upper cut-off frequency limits of GaAs and Si DDR IMPATTs are 220 GHz and 0.5 THz, respectively, whereas the same for InP and 4H-SiC DDR IMPATTs is 1.0 THz. Wz-GaN DDR IMPATTs are found to be excellent candidate for generation of RF power at THz frequencies of the order of 5.0 THz with appreciable DC to RF conversion efficiency. Further, it is observed that up to 1.0 THz, 4H-SiC DDR IMPATTs excel Wz-GaN DDR IMPATTs as regards their RF power outputs. Thus, the wide bandgap semiconductors such as Wz-GaN and 4H-SiC are highly suitable materials for DDR IMPATTs at both mm-wave and THz frequency ranges.

102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of the GaN IMPATT diodes in the terahertz regime was investigated using a modified double iterative simulation technique and the effect of photo-illumination on the devices was investigated.
Abstract: The prospects of wurtzite phase single-drift-region (SDR), flat and single-low-high-low (SLHL) type GaN IMPATT devices as terahertz sources are studied through a simulation experiment. The study indicates that GaN IMPATT diodes are capable of generating high RF power (at least 2.5 W) at around 1.45 THz with high efficiency (17–20%). The superior electronic properties of GaN make this a promising candidate for IMPATT operation in the THz regime, unapproachable by conventional Si, GaAs and InP based IMPATT diodes. The effect of parasitic series resistance on the THz performance of the device is further simulated. It is interesting to note that the presence of a charge bump in a flatly doped SDR structure reduces the value of parasitic series resistance by 22%. The effects of photo- illumination on the devices are also investigated using a modified double iterative simulation technique. Under photo-illumination (i) the negative conductance and (ii) the negative resistance of the devices (both flat and SLHL) decrease, while the frequency of operation and the device quality factor shift upwards. However, the upward shift in operating frequency is found to be more (~16 GHz) in the case of the SLHL SDR IMPATT device. The study indicates that GaN IMPATT is a promising opto-sensitive high power THz source.

88 citations