Jaan H. Pu
Bio: Jaan H. Pu is an academic researcher from University of Bradford. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbulence & Open-channel flow. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 44 publications receiving 432 citations. Previous affiliations of Jaan H. Pu include Tsinghua University & Nazarbayev University.
TL;DR: In this article, a linear power coupled model is proposed to integrate the differences between hyper-concentrated and dilute flows, a parameterized method combining the sediment size, Rouse number, mean concentration, and flow depth parameters has been used for modelling the sediment profile.
Abstract: During flooding, the suspended sediment transport usually experiences a wide-range of dilute to hyper-concentrated suspended sediment transport depending on the local flow and ground conditions. This paper assesses the distribution of sediment for a variety of hyper-concentrated and dilute flows. Due to the differences between hyper-concentrated and dilute flows, a linear-power coupled model is proposed to integrate these considerations. A parameterised method combining the sediment size, Rouse number, mean concentration, and flow depth parameters has been used for modelling the sediment profile. The accuracy of the proposed model has been verified against the reported laboratory measurements and comparison with other published analytical methods. The proposed method has been shown to effectively compute the concentration profile for a wide range of suspended sediment conditions from hyper-concentrated to dilute flows. Detailed comparisons reveal that the proposed model calculates the dilute profile with good correspondence to the measured data and other modelling results from literature. For the hyper-concentrated profile, a clear division of lower (bed-load) to upper layer (suspended-load) transport can be observed in the measured data. Using the proposed model, the transitional point from this lower to upper layer transport can be calculated precisely.
TL;DR: In this article, the Harten-Lax-van Leer-contact approximate Riemann solver is used to reconstruct the RiemANN problem in the finite volume model with the monotonic upwind scheme for conservative laws.
Abstract: Owing to unpredictable bed topography conditions in natural shallow flows, various numerical methods have been developed to improve the treatment of source terms in the shallow water equations. The surface gradient method is an attractive approach as it includes a numerically simple approach to model flows over topographically-varied channels. To further improve the performance of this method, this study deals with the numerical improvement of the shallow-flow source terms. The so-called surface gradient upwind method (SGUM) integrates the source term treatment in the inviscid discretization scheme. A finite volume model (FVM) with the monotonic upwind scheme for conservative laws is used. The Harten–Lax–van Leer-contact approximate Riemann solver is used to reconstruct the Riemann problem in the FVM. The proposed method is validated against published analytical, numerical, and experimental data, indicating that the SGUM is robust and treats the source terms in different flow conditions well.
TL;DR: In this paper, an improved shallow water equations model using a recently proposed Surface Gradient Upwind Method (SGUM) is used to compute dam-break flows in the presence of a triangular hump.
Abstract: The standard shallow water equations (SWEs) model is often considered to provide weak solutions to the dam-break flows due to its depth-averaged shock-capturing scheme assumptions. In this study, an improved SWEs model using a recently proposed Surface Gradient Upwind Method (SGUM) is used to compute dam-break flows in the presence of a triangular hump. The SGUM allows the SWEs model to stably and accurately reproduce the highly complex shock currents caused by the dam-break event, as it improves the treatment of SWEs numerical source terms, which is particularly crucial for simulating the wet/dry front interface of the dam-break flow. Besides, an Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) modeling technique is also employed in this study to compare with the performance of the SGUM-SWEs model. The SPH method is totally mesh free and thus it can efficiently track the large free surface deformation. The ISPH approach uses a strictly incompressible two-step semi-implicit solution method. B...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the differences in velocity distribution and 3D turbulence characteristics, including turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses, between uniform smooth bed, laboratory-prepared rough bed and water-worked bed open channel flows.
Abstract: To reproduce the natural flow topography in a laboratory environment, it is crucial to recapture its bed condition in order to ensure the accurate representation. Water-worked bed represents a state-of-the-art experimentally formed bed to imitate the natural-formed channel in most rivers or natural streams. Recently, this technique has been intensively studied through experimental and computational approaches; however, its actual influence towards the near-bed flow as compared to experimentally prepared rough bed in well-packed bedform order are still yet to be investigated deeply. This experimental study systematically investigated and compared the differences in velocity distribution and three-dimensional (3D) turbulence characteristics, including turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses, between uniform smooth bed, laboratory-prepared rough bed and water-worked bed open channel flows. The flow comparisons were concentrated at near-bed region where clear flow behaviour change can be observed. Through these comparisons, the study inspected the characteristics of water-worked bedform thoroughly, in order to inform future experimental research that tries to reproduce natural stream behaviours.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of collar on temporal scour depth variation at the base of a collar-protected circular pier was investigated, and an empirical equation has been proposed to compute the time-dependent scour depths at the front of the collar -protected piers.
Abstract: In the present study, the effect of collar on temporal scour depth variation at the base of a collar-protected circular pier was investigated. Experimental results revealed that a collar performs efficiently by reducing the rate of temporal scour depth variation around the pier. The efficiency of a collar, for different diameters and elevations, has been studied through flume experiments under clear-water scour condition. Analysis of obtained experimental results indicates that a collar performs efficiently and reduces maximum equilibrium scour at (undisturbed) bed-level. Further, the observations of the study revealed that the effectiveness of a collar increases with increase in collar diameter and decreases with the elevation of collar. Finally an empirical equation has been proposed to compute the time-dependent scour depth at the front of the collar -protected piers. The proposed equation has been validated and proven to be applicable to a wide range of variables under the effect of non-contraction flow. A sensitivity analysis has been done and it indicates that the collar diameter and its elevation are the most influencing parameters.
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: Part I presents the statistical theory of turbulence, and Part 2 the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers.
Abstract: Part I presents the statistical theory of turbulence, and Part 2 the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers in hydraulic research, fluid mechanics, environmental sciences and related disciplines. References Index.
TL;DR: The diverse bacterial assemblages present on marine microplastic surfaces are highlighted and the importance of understanding the bacterial plastisphere is highlighted.
Abstract: Plastic waste is a global issue of an increasing concern in aquatic ecosystems. Microplastics form a large proportion of plastic pollution in marine environments. Although microplastics are prevalent, their distribution along the coasts of tropical regions is not well studied. Microplastic pieces (1–5 mm) were collected from two distinct regions along the coastlines of Singapore, from the northern coast in the Johor Strait and the southern coast in the Singapore Strait. Microplastics were present in concentrations ranging from 9.20–59.9 particles per kg of dry sand sediment. The majority of microplastics identified were foam particles (55%) and fragments (35%). Microplastics were significantly more abundant on heavily populated beaches compared to pristine beaches. High throughput sequencing was used to profile the communities of bacteria on the surfaces of microplastic particles. The structure of the microbial communities was primarily characterised by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and were distinct across sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading genera such as Erythrobacter were dominant in areas with heavy shipping and pollution. Potential pathogenic genera such as Vibrio and Pseudomonas were also identified. This study highlights the diverse bacterial assemblages present on marine microplastic surfaces and the importance of understanding the bacterial plastisphere.
TL;DR: This model is able to preserve the C-property and mass conservation, to achieve good convergence to steady state, to capture discontinuous flows and to handle complex flows involving wetting and drying over uneven beds on unstructured grids with poor connectivity in an accurate, efficient and robust way.
Abstract: Within the framework of the Godunov-type cell-centered finite volume (CCFV) scheme, this paper proposes a 2D well-balanced shallow water model for unstructured grids. In this model, the face-based van Albada limiting scheme is employed in conjunction with a directional correction to reconstruct second order spatial values at the midpoint of the considered face. The Harten, Lax and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the Contact wave restored (HLLC) is applied to compute the fluxes of mass and momentum, while the splitting implicit method is utilized to solve the friction source terms. The novel aspects of the model include the new limited directional correction with which the new local extrema caused by the unlimited correction are prevented efficiently, the simplified non-negative water depth reconstruction used to get rid of numerical instabilities and in turn to preserve mass conservation at wet–dry interfaces and the novel slope source term treatment which suits complex unstructured grids well by transforming the slope source of a cell into fluxes at its faces. This model is able to preserve the C-property and mass conservation, to achieve good convergence to steady state, to capture discontinuous flows and to handle complex flows involving wetting and drying over uneven beds on unstructured grids with poor connectivity in an accurate, efficient and robust way. These capabilities are verified against analytical solutions, numerical results of alternative models and experimental and field data.
TL;DR: In this article, the applicability of a portable, commercially available surface velocity radar (SVR) for noncontact stream gauging was evaluated through a series of field-scale experiments carried out in a variety of sites and deployment conditions.
Abstract: The applicability of a portable, commercially available surface velocity radar (SVR) for noncontact stream gauging was evaluated through a series of field-scale experiments carried out in a variety of sites and deployment conditions. Comparisons with various concurrent techniques showed acceptable agreement with velocity profiles, with larger uncertainties close to the banks. In addition to discharge error sources shared with intrusive velocity-area techniques, SVR discharge estimates are affected by flood-induced changes in the bed profile and by the selection of a depth-averaged to surface velocity ratio, or velocity coefficient (α). Cross-sectional averaged velocity coefficients showed smaller fluctuations and closer agreement with theoretical values than those computed on individual verticals, especially in channels with high relative roughness. Our findings confirm that α = 0.85 is a valid default value, with a preferred site-specific calibration to avoid underestimation of discharge in very smooth channels (relative roughness ∼ 0.001) and overestimation in very rough channels (relative roughness > 0.05). Theoretically derived and site-calibrated values of α also give accurate SVR-based discharge estimates (within 10%) for low and intermediate roughness flows (relative roughness 0.001 to 0.05). Moreover, discharge uncertainty does not exceed 10% even for a limited number of SVR positions along the cross section (particularly advantageous to gauge unsteady flood flows and very large floods), thereby extending the range of validity of rating curves.