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Author

Jacques Monod

Bio: Jacques Monod is an academic researcher from Pasteur Institute. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Escherichia coli & Structural gene. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 88 publication(s) receiving 31384 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Jacques Monod include University of California, Berkeley.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: "It is certain that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception, and whether the body be alterant or alterec, evermore a perception precedeth operation; for else all bodies would be like one to another."
Abstract: "It is certain that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception; for when one body is applied to another, there is a kind of election to embrace that which is agreeable, and +'0 exclude or expel that which is ingrate; and whether the body be alterant or alterec, evermore a perception precedeth operation; for else all bodies would be like one to another." Francis Bacon (abou.1620)

7,887 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The synthesis of enzymes in bacteria follows a double genetic control, which appears to operate directly at the level of the synthesis by the gene of a shortlived intermediate, or messenger, which becomes associated with the ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place.
Abstract: The synthesis of enzymes in bacteria follows a double genetic control. The socalled structural genes determine the molecular organization of the proteins. Other, functionally specialized, genetic determinants, called regulator and operator genes, control the rate of protein synthesis through the intermediacy of cytoplasmic components or repressors. The repressors can be either inactivated (induction) or activated (repression) by certain specific metabolites. This system of regulation appears to operate directly at the level of the synthesis by the gene of a shortlived intermediate, or messenger, which becomes associated with the ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place.

5,361 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bacterial growth is considered as a method for the study of bacterial physiology and biochemistry, with the interpretation of quantitative data referring to bacterial growth limited to populations considered genetically homogeneous.
Abstract: The study of the growth of bacterial cultures does not constitute a specialized subject or branch of research: it is the basic method of Microbiology. It would be a foolish enterprise, and doomed to failure, to attempt reviewing briefly a \"subject\" which covers actually our whole discipline. Unless, of course, we considered the formal laws of growth for their own sake, an approach which has repeatedly proved sterile. In the present review we shall consider bacterial growth as a method for the study of bacterial physiology and biochemistry. More precisely, we shall concern ourselves with the quantitative aspects of the method, with the interpretation of quantitative data referring to bacterial growth. Furthermore, we shall considerz exclusively the positive phases of growth, since the study of bacterial \"death,\" i.e., of the negative phases of growth, involves distinct problems and methods. The discussion will be limited to populations considered genetically homogeneous. The problems of mutation and selection in growing cultures have been excellently dealt with in recent review articles by Delbriick (1) and Luria (2). No attempt is made at reviewing the literature on a subject which, as we have just seen, is not really a subject at all. The papers and results quoted have been selected as illustrations of the points discussed.

3,787 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The biological activity of many proteins is controlled by specific metabolites which do not interact directly with the substrates or products of the reactions, and it is suggested that this mechanism plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic activity.
Abstract: The biological activity of many proteins is controlled by specific metabolites which do not interact directly with the substrates or products of the reactions. The effect of these regulatory agents appears to result exclusively from a conformational alteration (allosteric transition) induced in the protein when it binds the agent. It is suggested that this mechanism plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic activity and also possibly in the specific control of protein synthesis.

1,833 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method can be used with great confidence to determine the molecular weights of polypeptide chains for a wide variety of proteins.
Abstract: Forty proteins with polypeptide chains of well characterized molecular weights have been studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate following the procedure of Shapiro, Vinuela, and Maizel (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 28, 815 (1967)). When the electrophoretic mobilities were plotted against the logarithm of the known polypeptide chain molecular weights, a smooth curve was obtained. The results show that the method can be used with great confidence to determine the molecular weights of polypeptide chains for a wide variety of proteins.

19,356 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: "It is certain that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception, and whether the body be alterant or alterec, evermore a perception precedeth operation; for else all bodies would be like one to another."
Abstract: "It is certain that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception; for when one body is applied to another, there is a kind of election to embrace that which is agreeable, and +'0 exclude or expel that which is ingrate; and whether the body be alterant or alterec, evermore a perception precedeth operation; for else all bodies would be like one to another." Francis Bacon (abou.1620)

7,887 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A population ecology perspective on organization-environment relations is proposed as an alternative to the dominant adaptation perspective. The strength of inertial pressures on organizational str...

5,743 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The synthesis of enzymes in bacteria follows a double genetic control, which appears to operate directly at the level of the synthesis by the gene of a shortlived intermediate, or messenger, which becomes associated with the ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place.
Abstract: The synthesis of enzymes in bacteria follows a double genetic control. The socalled structural genes determine the molecular organization of the proteins. Other, functionally specialized, genetic determinants, called regulator and operator genes, control the rate of protein synthesis through the intermediacy of cytoplasmic components or repressors. The repressors can be either inactivated (induction) or activated (repression) by certain specific metabolites. This system of regulation appears to operate directly at the level of the synthesis by the gene of a shortlived intermediate, or messenger, which becomes associated with the ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place.

5,361 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jan 2000-Nature
TL;DR: The construction of a genetic toggle switch is presented—a synthetic, bistable gene-regulatory network—in Escherichia coli and a simple theory is provided that predicts the conditions necessary for bistability.
Abstract: It has been proposed' that gene-regulatory circuits with virtually any desired property can be constructed from networks of simple regulatory elements. These properties, which include multistability and oscillations, have been found in specialized gene circuits such as the bacteriophage lambda switch and the Cyanobacteria circadian oscillator. However, these behaviours have not been demonstrated in networks of non-specialized regulatory components. Here we present the construction of a genetic toggle switch-a synthetic, bistable gene-regulatory network-in Escherichia coli and provide a simple theory that predicts the conditions necessary for bistability. The toggle is constructed from any two repressible promoters arranged in a mutually inhibitory network. It is flipped between stable states using transient chemical or thermal induction and exhibits a nearly ideal switching threshold. As a practical device, the toggle switch forms a synthetic, addressable cellular memory unit and has implications for biotechnology, biocomputing and gene therapy.

3,940 citations