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Author

James C. R. Stangoulis

Other affiliations: University of Adelaide
Bio: James C. R. Stangoulis is an academic researcher from Flinders University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biofortification & Population. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 94 publications receiving 4219 citations. Previous affiliations of James C. R. Stangoulis include University of Adelaide.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of the sensitivity to B of a range of metabolic processes including photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis leads to the conclusion that growth is not restricted by effects of B on energy supply and not directly by inhibition of protein synthesis.
Abstract: This study investigated the main factors contributing to boron toxicity in plants. Growth was rapidly inhibited by internal B concentrations in the range 1–5 m m across a range of plant types that included monocot, dicot and algal species. In contrast, mature cells were able to withstand up to 60 m m B for several days. In wheat, rapid inhibition of root growth occurred if high B was applied to the root tip, but not if high B was applied to mature sections of the root. In leaves, there were gradations in B concentrations that correlated with visible symptoms of toxicity. However, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that toxicity in leaves is due to osmotic stress induced by the accumulation of B. Analysis of the sensitivity to B of a range of metabolic processes including photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis leads to the conclusion that growth is not restricted by effects of B on energy supply and not directly by inhibition of protein synthesis. At higher B concentrations, many cellular activities were found to be partially inhibited and the toxicity to mature tissues was therefore considered not to arise from the disruption of a single process, but from the accumulated retardation of many cellular processes, exacerbated in light by photo-oxidative stress.

350 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Sep 2011-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that rice cultivars overexpressing single rice OsNAS genes could provide a sustainable and genetically simple solution to Fe and Zn deficiency disorders affecting billions of people throughout the world.
Abstract: Background: Rice is the primary source of food for billions of people in developing countries, yet the commonly consumed polished grain contains insufficient levels of the key micronutrients iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and Vitamin A to meet daily dietary requirements. Experts estimate that a rice-based diet should contain 14.5 m gg 21 Fe in endosperm, the main constituent of polished grain, but breeding programs have failed to achieve even half of that value. Transgenic efforts to increase the Fe concentration of rice endosperm include expression of ferritin genes, nicotianamine synthase genes (NAS) or ferritin in conjunction with NAS genes, with results ranging from two-fold increases via single-gene approaches to six-fold increases via multi-gene approaches, yet no approach has reported 14.5 m gg 21 Fe in endosperm. Methodology/Principal Findings: Three populations of rice were generated to constitutively overexpress OsNAS1, OsNAS2 or OsNAS3, respectively. Nicotianamine, Fe and Zn concentrations were significantly increased in unpolished grain of all three of the overexpression populations, relative to controls, with the highest concentrations in the OsNAS2 and OsNAS3 overexpression populations. Selected lines from each population had at least 10 m gg 21 Fe in polished grain and two OsNAS2 overexpression lines had 14 and 19 m gg 21 Fe in polished grain, representing up to four-fold increases in Fe concentration. Two-fold increases of Zn concentration were also observed in the OsNAS2 population. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that OsNAS2 overexpression leads to significant enrichment of Fe and Zn in phosphorus-free regions of rice endosperm. Conclusions: The OsNAS genes, particularly OsNAS2, show enormous potential for Fe and Zn biofortification of rice endosperm. The results demonstrate that rice cultivars overexpressing single rice OsNAS genes could provide a sustainable and genetically simple solution to Fe and Zn deficiency disorders affecting billions of people throughout the world.

336 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Transgenic events NASFer-274 containing rice nicotianamine synthase and soybean ferritin genes showed a single locus insertion without a yield penalty or altered grain quality, indicating that Fe is bioavailable.
Abstract: More than two billion people are micronutrient deficient. Polished grains of popular rice varieties have concentration of approximately 2 μg g(-1) iron (Fe) and 16 μg g(-1) zinc (Zn). The HarvestPlus breeding programs for biofortified rice target 13 μg g(-1) Fe and 28 μg g(-1) Zn to reach approximately 30% of the estimated average requirement (EAR). Reports on engineering Fe content in rice have shown an increase up to 18 μg g(-1) in glasshouse settings; in contrast, under field conditions, 4 μg g(-1) was the highest reported concentration. Here, we report on selected transgenic events, field evaluated in two countries, showing 15 μg g(-1) Fe and 45.7 μg g(-1) Zn in polished grain. Rigorous selection was applied to 1,689 IR64 transgenic events for insert cleanliness and, trait and agronomic performances. Event NASFer-274 containing rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS2) and soybean ferritin (SferH-1) genes showed a single locus insertion without a yield penalty or altered grain quality. Endosperm Fe and Zn enrichment was visualized by X-ray fluorescence imaging. The Caco-2 cell assay indicated that Fe is bioavailable. No harmful heavy metals were detected in the grain. The trait remained stable in different genotype backgrounds.

241 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The diversity in nutrient content of fish species and in particular the rich nutrient composition of small indigenous species, which should guide policy and programmes to improve food and nutrition security in Bangladesh are illustrated.

234 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this preliminary study, quantitative trait loci for grain phytates, Zn and Fe in glasshouse-grown rice lines from an IR64 × Azucena doubled haploid population were identified and correlations between phytate and essential nutrients were studied.
Abstract: Phytate (inositol-hexa-phosphate) has an important role in plants but it also may have anti-nutritional properties in animals and humans. While there is debate within the plant breeding and nutrition communities regarding an optimum level in grain, there appears to be little information at the molecular level for the genetics of this trait, and its association with important trace elements, in particular, Fe and Zn. In this preliminary study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain phytates, Zn and Fe in glasshouse-grown rice lines from an IR64 x Azucena doubled haploid population were identified. Correlations between phytate and essential nutrients were also studied. Transgressive segregation was found for most traits. Phytate and total P concentrations had one QTL in common located on chromosome five with the (high concentration) allele contributed from Azucena. There were significant positive correlations between phytate and inorganic phosphorus (P), total P, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn concentrations for both grain concentration and content. However, the QTLs of phytate were not located on the same chromosomal regions as those found for Fe, Zn and Mn, suggesting that they were genetically different and thus using molecular markers in breeding and selection would modify the phytate level without affecting grain micronutrient density.

214 citations


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Book
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors defined the sources of heavy metals and metalloids in Soils and derived methods for the determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in soil.
Abstract: Preface.- Contributors.- List of Abbreviations.- Section 1: Basic Principles: Introduction.-Sources of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Chemistry of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Effects of Heavy Metals and Metalloids on Soil Organisms.- Soil-Plant Relationships of Heavy Metals and Metalloids.- Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Micronutrients for Plants and Animals.-Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soils.- Section 2: Key Heavy Metals And Metalloids: Arsenic.- Cadmium.- Chromium and Nickel.- Cobalt and Manganese.- Copper.-Lead.- Mercury.- Selenium.- Zinc.- Section 3: Other Heavy Metals And Metalloids Of Potential Environmental Significance: Antimony.- Barium.- Gold.- Molybdenum.- Silver.- Thallium.- Tin.- Tungsten.- Uranium.- Vanadium.- Glossary of Specialized Terms.- Index.

1,684 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop bio-fortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se).
Abstract: Summary The diets of over two-thirds of the world's population lack one or more essential mineral elements. This can be remedied through dietary diversification, mineral supplementation, food fortification, or increasing the concentrations and/or bioavailability of mineral elements in produce (biofortification). This article reviews aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop biofortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se). Two complementary approaches have been successfully adopted to increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in food crops. First, agronomic approaches optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or improving the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil have been implemented. Secondly, crops have been developed with: increased abilities to acquire mineral elements and accumulate them in edible tissues; increased concentrations of ‘promoter’ substances, such as ascorbate, β-carotene and cysteine-rich polypeptides which stimulate the absorption of essential mineral elements by the gut; and reduced concentrations of ‘antinutrients’, such as oxalate, polyphenolics or phytate, which interfere with their absorption. These approaches are addressing mineral malnutrition in humans globally.

1,677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Benefits of nutrigenomics to study complex physiological effects of the ‘whole-grain package’, and the most promising ways for improving the nutritional quality of cereal products are discussed.
Abstract: Epidemiological studies have clearly shown that whole-grain cereals can protect against obesity, diabetes, CVD and cancers. The specific effects of food structure (increased satiety, reduced transit time and glycaemic response), fibre (improved faecal bulking and satiety, viscosity and SCFA production, and/or reduced glycaemic response) and Mg (better glycaemic homeostasis through increased insulin secretion), together with the antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of numerous bioactive compounds, especially those in the bran and germ (minerals, trace elements, vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols and alkylresorcinols), are today well-recognised mechanisms in this protection. Recent findings, the exhaustive listing of bioactive compounds found in whole-grain wheat, their content in whole-grain, bran and germ fractions and their estimated bioavailability, have led to new hypotheses. The involvement of polyphenols in cell signalling and gene regulation, and of sulfur compounds, lignin and phytic acid should be considered in antioxidant protection. Whole-grain wheat is also a rich source of methyl donors and lipotropes (methionine, betaine, choline, inositol and folates) that may be involved in cardiovascular and/or hepatic protection, lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Potential protective effects of bound phenolic acids within the colon, of the B-complex vitamins on the nervous system and mental health, of oligosaccharides as prebiotics, of compounds associated with skeleton health, and of other compounds such as alpha-linolenic acid, policosanol, melatonin, phytosterols and para-aminobenzoic acid also deserve to be studied in more depth. Finally, benefits of nutrigenomics to study complex physiological effects of the 'whole-grain package', and the most promising ways for improving the nutritional quality of cereal products are discussed.

871 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is considerable genetic variation in crop species that can be harnessed for sustainable biofortification strategies, and new genotypes with higher mineral densities are being developed.

861 citations