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James Curran

Bio: James Curran is an academic researcher from University of Sydney. The author has contributed to research in topics: Parsing & Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The author has an hindex of 78, co-authored 383 publications receiving 26009 citations. Previous affiliations of James Curran include National Institutes of Health & Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The classification system for HIV infection is revised to emphasize the clinical importance of the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the categorization of HIV-related clinical conditions and the AIDS surveillance case definition is expanded.
Abstract: The following CDC staff members prepared this report: National Center for Infectious Diseases Division of HIV/AIDS Kenneth G. Castro, M.D. John W. Ward, M.D. Laurence Slutsker, M.D., M.P.H. James W. Buehler, M.D. Harold W. Jaffe, M.D. Ruth L. Berkelman, M.D. Office of the Director Associate Director for HIV/AIDS James W. Curran, M.D., M.P.H. 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults Summary CDC has revised the classification system for HIV infection to emphasize the clinical importance of the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the categorization of HIV-related clinical conditions. This classification system replaces the system published by CDC in 1986 (1) and is primarily intended for use in public health practice. Consistent with the 1993 revised classification system, CDC has also expanded the AIDS surveillance case definition to include all HIV-infected persons who have less than 200 CD4+ T-lymphocytes/uL, or a CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 14. This expansion includes the addition of three clinical conditions

4,203 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first version of the SUMSS 4.3.3 mosaic images with 45 x 45 cosec‖δ‖ arcsec 2 resolution were published in this article.
Abstract: This paper is the second in a series describing the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) being carried out at 843 MHz with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST). The survey will consist of ∼590 4.3° x 4.3° mosaic images with 45 x 45 cosec‖δ‖ arcsec 2 resolution, and a source catalogue. In this paper we describe the initial release (version 1.0) of the source catalogue consisting of 107 765 radio sources made by fitting elliptical Gaussians in 271 SUMSS 4.3° × 4.3° mosaics to a limiting peak brightness of 6 mJy beam - 1 at δ ≤ -50° and 10 mJy beam - 1 at δ > -50°. The catalogue covers approximately 3500 deg 2 of the southern sky with δ ≤ -30°, about 43 per cent of the total survey area. Positions in the catalogue are accurate to within 1-2 arcsec for sources with peak brightness A 8 4 3 ≥ 20 mJy beam - 1 and are always better than 10 arcsec. The internal flux density scale is accurate to within 3 per cent. Image artefacts have been classified using a decision tree, which correctly identifies and rejects spurious sources in over 96 per cent of cases. Analysis of the catalogue shows that it is highly uniform and is complete to 8 mJy at δ ≤ -50° and 18 mJy at δ > -50°. In this release of the catalogue about 7000 sources are found in the overlap region with the National Radio Astronomy Observatories Very Large Array Sky Survey at 1.4 GHz. We calculate a median spectral index of a = -0.83 between 1.4 GHz and 843 MHz. This version of the catalogue will be released via the World Wide Web with future updates as new mosaics are released.

805 citations

MonographDOI
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: The Need for Small Business Research First stages in the Small business Research Project In the Field Analysing Data Presentation The Last Link in the Research Chain Conclusions as mentioned in this paper...
Abstract: The Need for Small Business Research First Stages in the Small Business Research Project In the Field Analysing Data Presentation The Last Link in the Research Chain Conclusions

693 citations

Book
01 Feb 1992
TL;DR: This article revisited media changes and social change linkages and junctures and revisited entertainment the global and the local in international communications the globalization of electronic journalism in defence of objectivity commercialism and professionalism in the american news media.
Abstract: Part 1 Mass media and society - general perspectives: culture, communications, and political economy feminist perspectives on the media postmodernism and television mass media and the public interest - towards a framework of norms for media performance mass media and democracy revisited media changes and social change linkages and junctures. Part 2 Media production: the sociology of news production revisited entertainment the global and the local in international communications the globalization of electronic journalism in defence of objectivity (revisited) commercialism and professionalism in the american news media. Part 3 Mediation of meaning: representation and popular culture reappraising reception aims, concepts and methods on the continuing problem of media effects gender and/in media consumption "understanding the Disney universe".

568 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.
Abstract: Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.

23,203 citations

MonographDOI
TL;DR: Hallin and Mancini as discussed by the authors proposed a framework for comparative analysis of the relation between the media and the political system, based on a survey of media institutions in eighteen West European and North American democracies.
Abstract: This book proposes a framework for comparative analysis of the relation between the media and the political system Building on a survey of media institutions in eighteen West European and North American democracies, Hallin and Mancini identify the principal dimensions of variation in media systems and the political variables that have shaped their evolution They go on to identify three major models of media system development, the Polarized Pluralist, Democratic Corporatist, and Liberal models; to explain why the media have played a different role in politics in each of these systems; and to explore the force of change that are currently transforming them It provides a key theoretical statement about the relation between media and political systems, a key statement about the methodology of comparative analysis in political communication, and a clear overview of the variety of media institutions that have developed in the West, understood within their political and historical context

4,541 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These Guidelines were developed by the Panel* on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection convened by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Abstract: SUMMARY The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced extraordinary complexity into the treatment of HIV-infected persons. In 1996, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation convened the Panel on Clinical Practices for the Treatment of HIV to develop guidelines for the clinical management of HIV-infected adults and adolescents. This report recommends that care should be supervised by an expert, and makes recommendations for laboratory monitoring including plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell counts and HIV drug resistance testing. The report also provides guidelines for antiretroviral therapy, including when to start treatment, what drugs to initiate, when to change therapy, and therapeutic options when changing therapy. Special considerations are provided for adolescents and pregnant women. As with treatment of other chronic conditions, therapeutic decisions require a mutual understanding between the patient and the health care provider regarding the benefits and risks of treatment. Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have major side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance due to non-adherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. Patient education and involvement in therapeutic

4,321 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Mar 2016
TL;DR: Comunicacio presentada a la 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, celebrada a San Diego (CA, EUA) els dies 12 a 17 of juny 2016.
Abstract: Comunicacio presentada a la 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, celebrada a San Diego (CA, EUA) els dies 12 a 17 de juny 2016.

3,960 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
31 May 2003
TL;DR: The CoNLL-2003 shared task on NER as mentioned in this paper was the first NER task with language-independent named entity recognition (NER) data sets and evaluation method, and a general overview of the systems that participated in the task and their performance.
Abstract: We describe the CoNLL-2003 shared task: language-independent named entity recognition. We give background information on the data sets (English and German) and the evaluation method, present a general overview of the systems that have taken part in the task and discuss their performance.

3,554 citations