scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

James W. Wiley

Bio: James W. Wiley is an academic researcher from Grambling State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cowbird & Population. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 30 publications receiving 2308 citations. Previous affiliations of James W. Wiley include United States Fish and Wildlife Service & University of California, Berkeley.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Captive breeding should be viewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments.
Abstract: The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other re- covery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been signif- icant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a care- ful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a spe- cies" population is declining or has fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be viewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in re- covery of some species for which effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive ef- forts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding pro- grams should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic~behavioral man- agement. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

672 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 coun- tries, were calculated.
Abstract: Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 coun- tries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection pro- grams, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of � 20%, and four reported rates of � 70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in re-

191 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most important effect of a hurricane is the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath as mentioned in this paper, and the recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery.
Abstract: Cyclonic storms, variously called typhoons, cyclones, or hurricanes (henceforth, hurricanes), are common in many parts of the world, where their frequent occurrence can have both direct and indirect effects on bird populations. Direct effects of hurricanes include mortality from exposure to hurricane winds, rains, and storm surges, and geographic displacement of individuals by storm winds. Indirect effects become apparent in the storm's aftermath and include loss of food supplies or foraging substrates; loss of nests and nest or roost sites; increased vulnerability to predation; microclimate changes; and increased conflict with humans. The short-term response of bird populations to hurricane damage, before changes in plant succession, includes shifts in diet, foraging sites or habitats, and reproductive changes. Bird populations may show long-term responses to changes in plant succession as second-growth vegetation increases in storm-damaged old-growth forests.The greatest stress of a hurricane to most upland terrestrial bird populations occurs after its passage rather than during its impact. The most important effect of a hurricane s i the destruction of vegetation, which secondarily affects wildlife in the storm's aftermath. The most vulnerable terrestrial wildlife populations have a diet of nectar, fruit, or seeds; nest, roost, or forage on large old trees; require a closed forest canopy; have special microclimate requirements and/or live in a habitat in which vegetation has a slow recovery rate. Small populations with these traits are at greatest risk to hurricane-induced extinction, particularly if they exist in small isolated habitat fragments.Recovery of avian populations from hurricane effects is partially dependent on the extent and degree of vegetation damage as well as its rate of recovery. Also, the reproductive rate of the remnant local population and recruitment from undisturbed habitat patches influence the rate at which wildlife populations recover from damage.

163 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201

14,171 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current evidence confirms that, as proposed by the Baas-Becking hypothesis, 'the environment selects' and is, in part, responsible for spatial variation in microbial diversity, but recent studies also dispute the idea that 'everything is everywhere'.
Abstract: We review the biogeography of microorganisms in light of the biogeography of macroorganisms A large body of research supports the idea that free-living microbial taxa exhibit biogeographic patterns Current evidence confirms that, as proposed by the Baas-Becking hypothesis, 'the environment selects' and is, in part, responsible for spatial variation in microbial diversity However, recent studies also dispute the idea that 'everything is everywhere' We also consider how the processes that generate and maintain biogeographic patterns in macroorganisms could operate in the microbial world

2,456 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The value of animal relocations as a conservation tool could be enhanced through more rigorous testing for the appropriateness of the approach in a given case, the establishment of widely used and generally accepted criteria for judging the success or failure of relocations, and better monitoring after a relocation, as well as better financial accountability.

1,329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: PVA should evaluate relative rather than absolute rates of extinction, emphasize short-time periods for making projections, and mix genetic and demographic currencies sparingly and link between recovery options and PVA models should be established.
Abstract: We examine why demographic models should be used cautiously in Population Viability Analysis (PVA) with endangered species. We review the structure, data requirements, and outputs of analytical, deterministic single-population, stochastic single-population, metapopulation, and spatially explicit models. We believe predictions from quantitative models for endangered species are unreliable due to poor quality of demographic data used in most applications, difficulties in estimating variance in demographic rates, and lack of information on dispersal (distances, ages, mortality, movement patterns). Unreliable estimates also arise because stochastic models are difficult to validate, environmental trends and periodic fluctuations are rarely considered, the form of density dependence is frequently unknown but greatly affects model outcomes, and alternative model structures can result in very different predicted effects of management regimes. We suggest that PVA (1) evaluate relative rather than absolute rates of extinction, (2) emphasize short-time periods for making projections, (3) start with simple models and choose an approach that data can support, (4) use models cautiously to diagnose causes of decline and examine potential routes to recovery, (5) evaluate cumulative ending functions and alternative reference points rather than extinction rates, (6) examine all feasible scenarios, and (7) mix genetic and demographic currencies sparingly. Links between recovery options and PVA models should be established by conducting field tests of model assumptions and field validation of secondary model predictions.

1,029 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that the best progress will be made when multidisciplinary teams of resource managers and scientists work in close collaboration and when results from comparative analyses, experiments, and modeling are combined within and among studies.
Abstract: With recent increases in the numbers of species reintroduction projects and reintroduction-related publications, there is now a recognizable field of reintroduction biology. Nevertheless, research thus far has been fragmented and ad hoc, rather than an organized attempt to gain reliable knowledge to improve reintroduction success. We reviewed 454 recent (1990-2005) peer-reviewed papers dealing with wildlife reintroductions from 101 journals. Most research has been retrospective, either opportunistic evaluations of techniques or general project summaries, and most inference is gained from post hoc interpretation of monitoring results on a species-by-species basis. Documentation of reintroduction outcomes has improved, however, and the derivation of more general principles via meta-analyses is expected to increase. The fragmentation of the reintroduction literature remains an obstacle. There is scope to improve reintroduction biology by greater application of the hypothetico-deductive method, particularly through the use of modeling approaches and well-designed experiments. Examples of fruitful approaches in reintroduction research include experimental studies to improve outcomes from the release of captive-bred animals, use of simulation modeling to identify factors affecting the viability of reintroduced populations, and the application of spatially explicit models to plan for and evaluate reintroductions. We recommend that researchers contemplating future reintroductions carefully determine a priori the specific goals, overall ecological purpose, and inherent technical and biological limitations of a given reintroduction and that evaluation processes incorporate both experimental and modeling approaches. We suggest that the best progress will be made when multidisciplinary teams of resource managers and scientists work in close collaboration and when results from comparative analyses, experiments, and modeling are combined within and among studies.

997 citations