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Jan A. Moynihan

Bio: Jan A. Moynihan is an academic researcher from University of Rochester Medical Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Immune system & Keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 116 publications receiving 4474 citations. Previous affiliations of Jan A. Moynihan include University of Trier & University of Rochester.


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TL;DR: A randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band, and antibody response, which produced small but significant changes inExecutive function, mindfulness, and sustained left frontal alpha asymmetry.
Abstract: Background/Aims: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has enhanced cognition, positive emotion, and immunity in younger and middle-aged samples; its benefits are less well known for older persons. Here we report on a randomized controlled trial of MBSR for older adults and its effects on executive function, left frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha band, and antibody response. Methods: Older adults (n = 201) were randomized to MBSR or waiting list control. The outcome measures were: the Trail Making Test part B/A (Trails B/A) ratio, a measure of executive function; changes in left frontal alpha asymmetry, an indicator of positive emotions or approach motivation; depression, mindfulness, and perceived stress scores, and the immunoglobulin G response to a protein antigen, a measure of adaptive immunity. Results: MBSR participants had a lower Trails B/A ratio immediately after intervention (p lower antibody responses 24 weeks after antigen challenge (p Conclusions: MBSR produced small but significant changes in executive function, mindfulness, and sustained left frontal alpha asymmetry. The antibody findings at follow-up were unexpected. Further study of the effects of MBSR on immune function should assess changes in antibody responses in comparison to T-cell-mediated effector functions, which decline as a function of age.

173 citations

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TL;DR: The findings suggest, consistent with prior speculation, that average to higher levels of Neuroticism can in some cases be associated with health benefits - in this case when it is accompanied by high Conscientiousness.
Abstract: The current study investigated if the Big 5 personality traits predicted interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in a national sample over the course of 5 years. In addition, interactions among the Big 5 were tested to provide a more accurate understanding of how personality traits may influence an inflammatory biomarker. Data included 1054 participants in the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) biomarkers subproject. The Big 5 personality traits were assessed in 2005–2006 as part of the main MIDUS survey. Medication use, comorbid conditions, smoking behavior, alcohol use, body mass index, and serum levels of IL-6 were assessed in 2005–2009 as part of the biomarkers subproject. Linear regression analyses examined personality associations with IL-6. A significant ConscientiousnessNeuroticism interaction revealed that those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism had lower circulating IL-6 levels than people with all other configurations of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Adjustment for health behaviors diminished the magnitude of this association but did not eliminate it, suggesting that lower comorbid conditions and obesity may partly explain the lower inflammation of those high in both Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. Our findings suggest, consistent with prior speculation, that average to higher levels of Neuroticism can in some cases be associated with health benefits – in this case when it is accompanied by high Conscientiousness. Using personality to identify those at risk may lead to greater personalization in the prevention and remediation of chronic inflammation.

173 citations

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TL;DR: The hypothesis that increased apoptotic rates are involved in organ dysfunction may provide a unifying theory for the pathophysiology of MODS.
Abstract: Objectives:To critically review the current understanding of the pathophysiologic events leading to the development of secondary multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) in critical illness and to examine the role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) as a mechanism involved in the progression of MODS.Data

163 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The results suggest that one function of splenic innervation and transmitter release may be to modulate T helper cytokines, thereby partially regulating immune effector function, and consistent with a model of immune regulation in which removal of sympathetic nervous system input enhances at least some parameters of immune responses.
Abstract: It is becoming clear that immune responses are subject to modulation by the sympathetic nervous system We examined the effect of chemical sympathectomy (to ablate peripheral sympathetic nerve fibers) on cytokine and Ab production in two strains of mice that are known to differ in their response to a variety of pathogens and in the dominant types of cytokines produced C57Bl/6J mice produce a strong cell-mediated response, characterized by production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, whereas BALB/cJ have a dominant humoral response, with production of IL-4 and IL-10 Animals were denervated by injection with 6-hydroxydopamine and immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and spleens were removed at various times after immunization Denervation significantly increased the keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-stimulated in vitro proliferation and IL-2 and IL-4 production by splenocytes from both strains The increases were prevented by pretreatment with desipramine, which blocks the uptake of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nerve fibers and subsequent nerve fiber destruction Serum titers of IgM, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a were also enhanced in the C57Bl/6J strain; BALB/cJ mice had a small increase in IgG1 only These results suggest that one function of splenic innervation and transmitter release may be to modulate T helper cytokines, thereby partially regulating immune effector function Our evidence is consistent with a model of immune regulation in which removal of sympathetic nervous system input enhances at least some parameters of immune responses

148 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is provided for heterogeneity of sympathetic nervous system regulation of T and B lymphocyte function and for organ-specific influences on immune function following sympathetic denervation of adult mice with 6-hydroxydopamine.

135 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: In a meta-analysis, Julianne Holt-Lunstad and colleagues find that individuals' social relationships have as much influence on mortality risk as other well-established risk factors for mortality, such as smoking.
Abstract: Background The quality and quantity of individuals' social relationships has been linked not only to mental health but also to both morbidity and mortality. Objectives This meta-analytic review was conducted to determine the extent to which social relationships influence risk for mortality, which aspects of social relationships are most highly predictive, and which factors may moderate the risk. Data Extraction Data were extracted on several participant characteristics, including cause of mortality, initial health status, and pre-existing health conditions, as well as on study characteristics, including length of follow-up and type of assessment of social relationships. Results Across 148 studies (308,849 participants), the random effects weighted average effect size was OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.42 to 1.59), indicating a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of death, and follow-up period. Significant differences were found across the type of social measurement evaluated (p<0.001); the association was strongest for complex measures of social integration (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.63 to 2.23) and lowest for binary indicators of residential status (living alone versus with others) (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.44). Conclusions The influence of social relationships on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

5,070 citations

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TL;DR: Motivated performance tasks elicited cortisol responses if they were uncontrollable or characterized by social-evaluative threat (task performance could be negatively judged by others), when methodological factors and other stressor characteristics were controlled for.
Abstract: This meta-analysis reviews 208 laboratory studies of acute psychological stressors and tests a theoretical model delineating conditions capable of eliciting cortisol responses. Psychological stressors increased cortisol levels; however, effects varied widely across tasks. Consistent with the theoretical model, motivated performance tasks elicited cortisol responses if they were uncontrollable or characterized by social-evaluative threat (task performance could be negatively judged by others), when methodological factors and other stressor characteristics were controlled for. Tasks containing both uncontrollable and social-evaluative elements were associated with the largest cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone changes and the longest times to recovery. These findings are consistent with the animal literature on the physiological effects of uncontrollable social threat and contradict the belief that cortisol is responsive to all types of stressors.

5,028 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A meta-analysis of studies measuring cytokine concentration in patients with major depression reports significantly higher concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in depressed subjects compared with control subjects, strengthening evidence that depression is accompanied by activation of the IRS.

3,800 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present report meta-analyzes more than 300 empirical articles describing a relationship between psychological stress and parameters of the immune system in human participants to find that physical vulnerability as a function of age or disease also increased vulnerability to immune change during stressors.
Abstract: The present report meta-analyzes more than 300 empirical articles describing a relationship between psychological stress and parameters of the immune system in human participants. Acute stressors (lasting minutes) were associated with potentially adaptive upregulation of some parameters of natural immunity and downregulation of some functions of specific immunity. Brief naturalistic stressors (such as exams) tended to suppress cellular immunity while preserving humoral immunity. Chronic stressors were associated with suppression of both cellular and humoral measures. Effects of event sequences varied according to the kind of event (trauma vs. loss). Subjective reports of stress generally did not associate with immune change. In some cases, physical vulnerability as a function of age or disease also increased vulnerability to immune change during stressors.

2,756 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Continuity in clinic- and community-based samples suggests there is a dose-response relationship between depression and these inflammatory markers, lending strength to the contention that the cardiac risk conferred by depression is not exclusive to patient populations.
Abstract: Objective:To assess the magnitude and direction of associations of depression with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 in community and clinical samples.Methods:Systematic review of articles published between January 1967 and January 2008 in the PubMed and PsycINFO electronic data

2,360 citations