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Jan P Fokkelman

Bio: Jan P Fokkelman is an academic researcher from Brill Publishers. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hebrew Bible & Narrative art. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 15 publications receiving 258 citations.

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01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The authors provide an introduction to the literary features of biblical narratives and poetry. But their focus is on the author's own work, and not on the entire Bible, focusing on the essential components of narrative literature, such as the author, characters, action, hero, quest, plot, time and space, entrances and exits.
Abstract: Narrator, characters, action, hero, quest, plot, time and space, entrances and exits--these are the essential components of all narrative literature. This authoritative and engaging introduction to the literary features of biblical narrative and poetry will help the reader grasp the full significance of these components, allowing them to enter more perceptively into the narrative worlds created by the great writers of the Bible.

27 citations

30 Jun 1999

21 citations

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01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the presence of the divine messenger opposition type-scene, a conventional scene in which an antagonist opposes a divine messenger on whom God inflicts extreme fates that often seem disproportionate to the offense and occur in the absence of any divine proscription, is discussed.
Abstract: This dissertation addresses a lacuna in the study of the literary portrayals of divine retribution in the Old Testament. Focusing on narrative texts, this work posits the presence of the divine messenger opposition type-scene, conventional scenes in which an antagonist opposes a divine messenger on whom God inflicts extreme fates that often seem disproportionate to the offense and occur in the absence of any divine proscription. Opposition to the messenger seems to be the offense grave enough to merit the peculiar fates these characters experience. The introduction discusses how the historical analysis of divine retribution has been limited to theological treatments. Recent studies have slightly expanded the analysis to sociological and anthropological approaches, but literary approaches to the topic have been scant. Addressing the intersection of convention and historiography provides a foundation for moving the discussion forward. Employing a literary-critical treatment—supplemented by form-, source-, historical-, and redaction-critical approaches where beneficial—to multiple narrative passages reveals the presence of the proposed type-scene. Chapter 2 explores Moses as the prototypical prophet validated through the bizarre fates experienced by his opponents. Korah’s destruction, Miriam’s leprosy, and the biting serpents all represent divine responses to opposition to Moses. Korah’s rebellion represents a paradigmatic template of the type-scene, one in which God validates Moses. Chapter 3 examines the type-scene in narratives involving the classical prophets. The stories of Jeroboam’s deformity, Ahab’s death, the fiery death of Ahaziah’s military squads, the mauling by bears of Bethel youths, Gehazi’s leprosy, and the trampling of a court official during the siege of Samaria all utilize the type-scene in a manner that validates the legitimacy of a prophet. The persecution narrative in Jeremiah and the harassment of Amos similarly allude to the scene. Chapter 4 argues that the Chronicler utilizes the type-scene as a part of his literary treatment of his retribution theology. While the Historian mentions the extreme fates experienced by kings and prophets, the Chronicler presents those fates as merited retribution imposed on those who oppose a divine messenger. The Chronicler connects Josiah’s death to Ahab’s, links Joash’s assassination to Zechariah’s murder, associates Asa’s diseased feet with his imprisoning Hanani, and roots Uzziah’s leprosy in his opposition to Azariah and the temple priests. Chapter 5 transitions to the New Testament, arguing that the enduring nature of the type-scene results in its appearance beyond the Old Testament. The discussion focuses on the presence of the scene in Luke’s account of Zechariah’s interaction with Gabriel in Luke 2 and in the book of Acts. It is argued that Luke repurposes the type-scene in Acts and merges it with the tyrant-death typescene in order to portray the impotence of Satan’s kingdom. The number of scenes in which a peculiar fate is linked to the opposition of a divine messenger demonstrates the existence and use of a conventional scene for portraying divine retribution. Ultimately, as a literary component of the Old Testament, the divine messenger opposition type-scene should factor into the discussion of Hebrew historiography. Extreme Fate as Convention: Episodic Reprisals against Divine Messenger Opposition in Scripture A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Asbury Theological Seminary Wilmore, Kentucky In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Biblical Studies Dissertation Committee: Dr. Lawson G. Stone, Mentor Dr. Bill T. Arnold, Reader Dr. Michael D. Matlock, Examiner

55 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The NATURE, FUNCTION, AND PURPOSE of the TERM biK C in the TORAH, PROPHETS, AND WRITINGS as mentioned in this paper was discussed in detail.

54 citations

19 May 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that David's identity as God's shepherd cannot be separated from his kingship, and that Luke takes this aspect of David into his narrative, and they use a narrative methodology that relies heavily on exegetical discussion to explore the text.
Abstract: The Davidic motif is well recognised in the Lukan narrative but David's identity as God's shepherd king has not seemed to influence how scholars have understood the Lukan Jesus and his mission to seek and save the lost. This thesis argues that David's identity as God's shepherd cannot be separated from his kingship, and that Luke takes this aspect of David into his narrative. I use a narrative methodology that relies heavily on exegetical discussion to explore the text. Luke's own intention to write a διήγησις that is orderly (καθeξῆς) and written from the beginning (ἄνωθeν) is thus followed. In light of the path Luke has set, I pay particular attention to the primacy effect as this sets the trajectory for a narrative, the cumulative and cohesive nature of narrative, gaps and blanks in narrative which invite the reader to find meaning, and the use of Leitwortstil to reveal and clarify meaning. I also use Hays' test for echoes since Luke's writing uses a number of implicit tools to direct the reader to understand Jesus' mission and ministry. The thesis considers, first, the pervasive nature of the shepherd king motif in Israel's history and especially Kingdoms' portrayal of David in the Septuagint. Second, it takes the motif in Luke's infancy narrative and after reviewing the well recognised motif of David in Luke 1, asks again why the angels went to the shepherds in the birth narrative? I conclude that Micah 5:2-5 lies behind Luke's expression of the 'City of David, Bethlehem' and that here Luke points to Jesus as Micah's messianic shepherd. Further, in Luke's genealogy, which follows a different path to Matthew, we find Luke draws on Zech 12:10-14 and Jer 22:30-23:6 where the end of the kingly line from Jeconiah would be superseded by the Davidic shepherd king who brings God's salvation. Third, four shepherd sayings and passages are considered in Luke-Acts (Luke 10:3; 12:32; 15:1-7; Acts 20:28). These demonstrate that the motif of the Davidic shepherd king has an on-going influence on how the reader understands Jesus' ministry to the marginalised. I note that this shepherd task is passed onto the wider discipleship group in the household mission and also influences Paul's Abschiedsrede at Miletus. God's concern for the disciples' welfare

53 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: This paper argued that the two-sword tradition is a Lukan literary foil that repudiates a well-known hagiographic tale, and that it was used by the prophet Luke to persuade his followers to renounce the tradition and pursue peace instead of violence.
Abstract: Jesus’ charge in Luke 22:35-38 that his apostles should buy swords is one of the most enigmatic texts in the gospels. Although previous studies made use of a wide range of standard critical methods, none of these approaches satisfactorily revealed the pericope’s meaning. In a fresh re-examination of Luke’s sword-logion this project interweaves biblical and cultural intertextuality and asserts that the sword-logion is a Lukan literary foil that repudiates a wellknown hagiographic tale. The provenance for this legendary saga (i.e., the “two-sword” traditum) was Gen 34 whose routine refraction in later Jewish writings led to its inclusion as part of the broader cultural milieu of the first century C.E. Based on that premise I argue that Luke 22:35-38 was Luke’s censure of a minor, but familiar HB tradition that informed and shaped the identity of Luke’s community. While this project employs an eclectic mix of standard historical critical methods, tradition and literary criticism serve as the two principal methodological strategies. Chapter two examines the provenance of the “two-sword” traditum and identifies four motifs: family identity and honor; vindication of an honored one; national identity and honor; and justified vengeance. Using the story’s main protagonists and these four motifs, the tradition’s reappearance and subsequent development in the HB is tracked. Chapter three traces the refraction of the “two-sword” traditum in extracanonical writings. Particular attention is given to the amplifications of the tradition as it is retold and rewritten in Jewish writings of the Second Temple Period. After establishing that Luke routinely made use of oblique allusions and that he and his community knew Israel’s scriptures and traditions, chapter four analyzes Luke 22:35-38 in light of that celebrated tradition. In the exegesis I argue that Luke exploits the “two-sword” traditum in order to exhort his community to reject a renowned HB tradition from their shared narrative universe. A survey of the gospel further corroborates that Luke attempts to persuade his readers to renounce the “two-sword” traditum and pursue peace instead of violence. Chapter five reviews the project and assesses its significance for future research.

52 citations