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Author

Jane Carruthers

Other affiliations: Stellenbosch University
Bio: Jane Carruthers is an academic researcher from University of South Africa. The author has contributed to research in topics: National park & Environmental history. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 62 publications receiving 1415 citations. Previous affiliations of Jane Carruthers include Stellenbosch University.


Papers
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01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explain how developments in the Kruger National Park have been integral to the wider political and socio-economic concerns of South Africa, and how nature protection has evolved in response to a variety of stimuli, including white self-interest, Afrikaner nationalism, ineffectual legislation, elitism, and the exploitation of Africans.
Abstract: In explaining how developments in the Kruger National Park have been integral to the wider political and socio-economic concerns of South Africa, this text opens an alternative perspective on its history. Nature protection has evolved in response to a variety of stimuli, including white self-interest, Afrikaner nationalism, ineffectual legislation, elitism, capitalism, and the exploitation of Africans.

298 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a recent special issue of Diversity and Distributions as mentioned in this paper, 20 papers focused on the global cross-disciplinary experiment of introduced Australian acacias (1012 recognized species native to Australia) have been moved extensively around the world by humans over the past 250 years.
Abstract: Aim Australian acacias (1012 recognized species native to Australia, which were previously grouped in Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae) have been moved extensively around the world by humans over the past 250 years. This has created the opportunity to explore how evolutionary, ecological, historical and sociological factors interact to affect the distribution, usage, invasiveness and perceptions of a globally important group of plants. This editorial provides the background for the 20 papers in this special issue of Diversity and Distributions that focusses on the global cross-disciplinary experiment of introduced Australian acacias. Location Australia and global. Methods The papers of the special issue are discussed in the context of a unified framework for biological invasions. Distributions of species were mapped across Australia, their representation in bioclimatic zones examined and the potential global distribution of the group modelled. By collating a variety of different lists, we determined which Australian acacias have reached different stages in the introduction-naturalization-invasion continuum in different parts of the world. Paradigms and key research questions relating to barriers to invasion, stages of invasion and management perceptions are sketched. Results According to our global database of Australian acacia records, 386 species have been moved outside Australia by human agency, 71 species are naturalized or weedy, and 23 are unequivocally invasive. Climatic models suggest that about a third of the world’s land surface is climatically suitable for Australian acacias. Many species are commercially important crops or are useful for other purposes and have been extensively planted, and many different human perceptions of Australian acacias exist in different parts of the world. The papers in the special issue cover all the barriers, stages and processes that define biological invasions and touch on many aspects: history and the human dimension; aspects of the species pool; species traits; biotic interactions; climate and niche; and management. Main conclusions Australian acacias are an excellent model group for examining interactions between evolutionary, ecological and socio-economic drivers of species introductions. New insights have emerged on the biological, ecological and evolutionary correlates of naturalization and invasion, but human usage factors permeate all explanatory models. Understanding and managing introduced Australian acacias requires a fundamental and integrative appreciation of both intrinsic (e.g. species traits) and extrinsic (e.g. human usage and perceptions) aspects.

260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Anthropogenic introductions of Australian Acacia spp.
Abstract: Aim Anthropogenic introductions of Australian Acacia spp. that become classed as alien invasive species have consequences besides the physical, spatial and ecological: there are also cultural, ethi ...

81 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A more objective and critical explanation is needed, one which takes cognisance of the complexities of the South African political economy at the time of the National Park Act in 1926 as mentioned in this paper, which was not so much the acceptance that the principle of a national park was morally correct, as the acceptance by white South Africans of the philosophy that the viewing and studying of game animals constituted a legitimate and financially viable form of land use and that the state should provide land for this purpose.
Abstract: Popular histories of nature protection in southern Africa usually portray the prelude to the passing of the National Parks Act in 1926 as a contest between the forces of 'good' (those in favour of national parks) and 'evil' (those antagonistic or apathetic to the idea). 1 In southern Africa the development of national parks has not been dispassionately evaluated and dedicated modern conservationists have constructed what might be described as an 'appropriate' history indeed a proselytising one ignoring considerations other than current conservation preoccupations. This romanticised view of past nature protection policies and attitudes is more akin to folklore than to history and it has distorted the paradoxical origins of protectionist endeavour. Such simplistic and inaccurate interpretations beg closer examination and a more objective and critical explanation is needed, one which takes cognisance of the complexities of the South African political economy at the time. The creation of national parks anywhere in the world can only be understood in the context of the time and place in which this occurs. Fundamentally, the founding of a national park concerns the allocation of certain natural resources and for this reason it is a polititcal, social and economic issue more than a moral one. What was accomplished in the mid 1920s in South Africa was not so much the acceptance that the principle of a national park was morally correct, as the acceptance by white South Africans of the philosophy that the viewing and studying of game animals constituted a legitimate, and financially viable, form of land use and that the state should provide land for this purpose. Many circumstances intertwined to make the national park a reality. It was not merely accidental that the passing of the National Parks Act in 1926 took place atLthe same time as demonstrations of an aggressive, though perhaps still nascent, Afrikaner nationalism. 2 Other manifestations of the Afrikaner nationalist thrust included the adoption of Afrikaans as an official language, the revival of interest in Voortrekker traditions, the resurgence of republican sentiments and the loosening of ties with

72 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that those responsible for the conservation of these ecosystems will face many challenges in the 21st century, including finding ways for effectively managing invasive alien plants and fires, as foreseen by the Wicht Committee.
Abstract: In 1945, the Royal Society of South Africa published a wide-ranging report, prepared by a committee led by Dr C.L. Wicht, dealing with the preservation of the globally unique and highly diverse vegetation of the south-western Cape. The publication of the Wicht Committee’s report signalled the initiation of a research programme aimed at understanding, and ultimately protecting, the unique and diverse ecosystems of the Cape Floristic Region. This programme has continued for over 70 years, and it constitutes the longest history of concerted scientific endeavour aimed at the conservation of an entire region and its constituent biota. This monograph has been prepared to mark the 70th anniversary of the Wicht Committee report. It provides a detailed overview of the circumstances that led up to the Wicht Committee’s report, and the historical context within which it was written. It traces the development of new and substantial scientific understanding over the past 70 years, particularly with regard to catchment...

58 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism are discussed. And the history of European ideas: Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 721-722.

13,842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Feb 2015-Science
TL;DR: An updated and extended analysis of the planetary boundary (PB) framework and identifies levels of anthropogenic perturbations below which the risk of destabilization of the Earth system (ES) is likely to remain low—a “safe operating space” for global societal development.
Abstract: The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth system. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundary framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries—climate change and biosphere integrity—have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth system into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.

7,169 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of institutions in mediating environment-society relationships is proposed. But the authors focus on the implications of intra-community dynamics and ecological heterogeneity.

1,564 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Elton's "The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants" as mentioned in this paper is one of the most cited books on invasion biology, and it provides an accessible, engaging introduction to the most important environmental crises of our time.
Abstract: Much as Rachel Carson's \"Silent Spring\" was a call to action against the pesticides that were devastating bird populations, Charles S. Elton's classic \"The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants\" sounded an early warning about an environmental catastrophe that has become all too familiar today-the invasion of nonnative species. From kudzu to zebra mussels to Asian long-horned beetles, nonnative species are colonizing new habitats around the world at an alarming rate thanks to accidental and intentional human intervention. One of the leading causes of extinctions of native animals and plants, invasive species also wreak severe economic havoc, causing $79 billion worth of damage in the United States alone. Elton explains the devastating effects that invasive species can have on local ecosystems in clear, concise language and with numerous examples. The first book on invasion biology, and still the most cited, Elton's masterpiece provides an accessible, engaging introduction to one of the most important environmental crises of our time. Charles S. Elton was one of the founders of ecology, who also established and led Oxford University's Bureau of Animal Population. His work has influenced generations of ecologists and zoologists, and his publications remain central to the literature in modern biology. \"History has caught up with Charles Elton's foresight, and \"The Ecology of Invasions\" can now be seen as one of the central scientific books of our century.\"-David Quammen, from the Foreword to \"Killer Algae: The True Tale of a Biological Invasion\

1,321 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review examines the social, economic, and political effects of environmental conservation projects as they are manifested in protected areas, focusing on people living in and displaced from protected areas and analyzing the worldwide growth of protected areas over the past 20 years.
Abstract: This review examines the social, economic, and political effects of environmental conservation projects as they are manifested in protected areas. We pay special attention to people living in and displaced from protected areas, analyze the worldwide growth of protected areas over the past 20 years, and offer suggestions for future research trajectories in anthropology. We examine protected areas as a way of seeing, understanding, and producing nature (environment) and culture (society) and as a way of attempting to manage and control the relationship between the two. We focus on social, economic, scientific, and political changes in places where there are protected areas and in the urban centers that control these areas. We also examine violence, conflict, power relations, and governmentality as they are connected to the processes of protection. Finally, we examine discourse and its effects and argue that anthropology needs to move beyond the current examinations of language and power to attend to the ways in which protected areas produce space, place, and peoples.

1,284 citations