Jane F. Wallace
Bio: Jane F. Wallace is an academic researcher from Bayer Corporation. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Albuminuria & Dipstick. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 6 publication(s) receiving 231 citation(s).
Topics: Albuminuria, Dipstick, Proteinuria, Creatinine, Microalbuminuria
01 Apr 2000-Clinica Chimica Acta
TL;DR: A dipstick test plus an optical strip reader that can measure urine protein, albumin, and creatinine and calculate the appropriate ratios provides a better screening test for albuminuria or proteinuria than one measuring only albumin or protein.
Abstract: Timed urine collections are difficult to use in clinical practice owing to inaccurate collections making calculations of the 24-h albumin or protein excretion questionable. One of our goals was to assess the 'correction' of urinary albumin and (or) protein excretion by dividing these by either the creatinine concentration or the term, (specific gravity-1)x100(1). The 24-h creatinine excretion can be estimated based on the patients' gender, age and weight. We studied the influence of physiological extremes of hydration and exercise, and protein and creatinine excretion in patients with or suspected kidney disorders. Specimens were collected from healthy volunteers every 4 h during one 24-h period. We assayed the collections individually to give us an assessment of the variability of the analytes with time, and then reassayed them after combining them to give a 24-h urine. For all volunteers, the mean intra-individual CVs based on the 4-h collections expressed in mg/24 h were 80.0% for albumin and 96.5% for total protein (P0.2). The CVs were reduced by dividing the albumin or protein concentration by the creatinine concentration or by the term, (SG-1)x100. This gave a CV for mg albumin/g creatinine of 52% (P<0.1 vs. albumin mg/g creatinine); mg protein/g creatinine of 39% (P<0.05 vs. mg protein/g creatinine); mg albumin/[(SG-1)x100] of 49% (P<0.1 vs. albumin)/[(SG-1)x100]; and mg protein/[(SG-1)x100] of 37% (P<0. 05 vs. mg protein)/[(SG-1)x100]. For the 68 subjects in the study, the strongest correlation was between the creatinine concentrations and the 24-h urine volume: r=0.786, P<0.001. The correlation of (SG-1)x100 vs. the 24-h urine volume was: r=0.606, P<0.001; for (SG-1)x100 and the creatinine concentration, the correlation was: r=0.666, P<0.001. Compared to the volunteers, the albumin and protein excretion in mg/24 h were more variable in the patients. The same was true if the albumin or protein concentrations were divided by the creatinine concentration or by (SG-1)x100. Protein and albumin concentrations were lower in dilute urines. Dividing the albumin or protein concentrations by the creatinine concentration reduced the number of false negative protein and albumin results. Dividing the albumin or protein values in mg/24 h by (SG-1)x100 eliminated fewer false negatives. Albumin concentrations increased significantly after vigorous exercise. The increase was almost eliminated when the albumin result was divided by the creatinine concentration suggesting that a decreased urine flow and not increased glomerular permeability causes an increase of post-exercise albuminuria. The same was true for proteinuria. A dipstick test plus an optical strip reader that can measure urine protein, albumin, and creatinine and calculate the appropriate ratios provides a better screening test for albuminuria or proteinuria than one measuring only albumin or protein.
TL;DR: A multisite evaluation of a new urine dipstick called Multistix PRO™ (Bayer, Elkhart, IN), which has reagent pads for the simultaneous assay of urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine found that dividing the dipsticks’ albumin or protein results by the creatInine concentration reduced the number of false‐positive album in or protein values observed in concentrated urines, and reduced theNumber of false negatives in dilute urines.
Abstract: The goal of our study was to perform a multisite evaluation of a new urine dipstick called Multistix PROtrade mark (Bayer, Elkhart, IN), which has reagent pads for the simultaneous assay of urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine. Patients' urine specimens were assayed at four sites with these dipsticks and with the familiar Bayer Multistix 10SG dipsticks for protein. The new dipstick pads for albumin are impregnated with bis (3',3"-diiodo-4',4"-dihydroxy-5',5"-dinitrophenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-sulfonephthalein (DIDNTB) dye. These dipsticks also have a novel pad that estimates urinary creatinine using the peroxidase activity of the copper-creatinine complex. We determined the interlaboratory agreement of these dipsticks by comparing dipstick results to values obtained by quantitative analytical methods. We found that dividing the dipsticks' albumin or protein results by the creatinine concentration reduced the number of false-positive albumin or protein values observed in concentrated urines, and reduced the number of false negatives in dilute urines. The ratio of albumin to creatinine, or protein to creatinine gives a better measure of albumin or protein excretion. Compared to reading by eye, the dipstick results agreed better with the quantitative assays when they were read by a reflectometer (Bayer Clinitek).
01 Feb 2000-Clinical Biochemistry
TL;DR: With the simultaneous measurement of creatinine and albumin in urine, the albumin/creatinine ratio can be determined effectively reducing or eliminating the occasional false-negative and false-positive result in those with dilute or concentrated urines, respectively.
Abstract: Objectives: It was our goal to develop a urine dipstick that could measure creatinine with a peroxidase reaction. The simultaneous measurement of albumin and creatinine permits the estimation of the 24-h albumin excretion, an important value in judging existing or likely development of renal failure. A highly sensitive dye-binding dipstick method for albumin exists, and a suitable dipstick for the assay for urine creatinine is described here. Methods: Copper-creatinine and iron-creatinine complexes have peroxidase activity. With 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and diisopropyl benzene dihydroperoxide (DBDH); the peroxidase activity of copper-creatinine and iron-creatinine complexes can be demonstrated. This reaction was used in the assay of urine creatinine either in solution or by a suitably impregnated urine dipstick. Results: Our method based on the peroxidase activity of the copper-creatinine complex has an analytical range for creatinine of 100 mg/L (0.884 mmol/L) to 3000 mg/L (26.52 mmol/L). The creatinine assay is free from most interfering compounds that may be present in urine. Hemoglobin is an interferent, and its effects can be reduced but not eliminated by the addition of 4-hydroxy-2-methyl quinoline. We do not recommend using the dipsticks when visible blood is present or if the dipstick blood test is positive. The copper-creatinine complex oxidizes ascorbic acid; however, we were able to modify the reaction conditions so that ascorbic acid at Discussion: With the simultaneous measurement of creatinine and albumin in urine, the albumin/creatinine ratio can be determined effectively reducing or eliminating the occasional false-negative and false-positive result in those with dilute or concentrated urines, respectively. The dipstick test for these analytes permits the simple identification of individuals with possible albuminuria and could serve well in a point-of-care setting.
TL;DR: Patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, or diabetes showed the greatest predictive value of a positive test for albumin or protein by dipstick, suggesting that albuminuria and/or proteinuria were underdiagnosed in this group of patients.
Abstract: We tested patients’ urines for albumin, protein, and creatinine by quantitative and dipstick methods. The concentrations of these analytes were established by quantitative, cuvet-based chemistry methods that we assumed gave the “correct” values. There was good to excellent agreement of the dipstick results with the quantitative methods for the above three analytes. We found many patients who excreted pathological amounts of albumin and/or protein who did not have a diagnosis of kidney disease or other likely causes of proteinuria, suggesting that albuminuria and/or proteinuria were underdiagnosed in our group of patients. Those with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, or diabetes showed the greatest predictive value of a positive test for albumin or protein by dipstick. Dipstick testing for albumin, protein, and creatinine had good or excellent agreement with quantitative methods. The dipstick tests were easy to use, simple, and low in cost, and can serve well for point-of-care testing. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 15:295–300, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
02 Oct 1998
TL;DR: In this article, an improved method for determining the concentration of a first analyte in a fluid test sample as a function of a second analyte also present in the sample whose concentration in the fluid sample is clinically related to that of the analyte was proposed.
Abstract: Disclosed is an improved method for determining the concentration of a first analyte in a fluid test sample as a function of a second analyte also present in the sample whose concentration in the fluid sample is clinically related to that of the first analyte. The method involves determining the concentration of the first analyte, and, if this concentration is outside of its useful analytical range, dividing this concentration by the normal concentration of the second analyte. This method of ratioing the concentrations of the first and second analyte is advantageous because accuracy is increased with fewer false positive and false negative results being reported.
01 Aug 1991-Cardiovascular Research
TL;DR: Variation in the volume and composition of urine is caused by differences in physical exertion, environmental conditions, as well as water, salt, and high protein intakes, which should always be considered if the generation rate, physical, and chemical composition of feces and urine is to be accurately predicted.
Abstract: The safe disposal of human excreta is of paramount importance for the health and welfare of populations living in low income countries as well as the prevention of pollution to the surrounding environment. On-site sanitation (OSS) systems are the most numerous means of treating excreta in low income countries, these facilities aim at treating human waste at source and can provide a hygienic and affordable method of waste disposal. However, current OSS systems need improvement and require further research and development. Development of OSS facilities that treat excreta at, or close to, its source require knowledge of the waste stream entering the system. Data regarding the generation rate and the chemical and physical composition of fresh feces and urine was collected from the medical literature as well as the treatability sector. The data were summarized and statistical analysis was used to quantify the major factors that were a significant cause of variability. The impact of this data on biological processes, thermal processes, physical separators, and chemical processes was then assessed. Results showed that the median fecal wet mass production was 128 g/cap/day, with a median dry mass of 29 g/cap/day. Fecal output in healthy individuals was 1.20 defecations per 24 hr period and the main factor affecting fecal mass was the fiber intake of the population. Fecal wet mass values were increased by a factor of 2 in low income countries (high fiber intakes) in comparison to values found in high income countries (low fiber intakes). Feces had a median pH of 6.64 and were composed of 74.6% water. Bacterial biomass is the major component (25-54% of dry solids) of the organic fraction of the feces. Undigested carbohydrate, fiber, protein, and fat comprise the remainder and the amounts depend on diet and diarrhea prevalence in the population. The inorganic component of the feces is primarily undigested dietary elements that also depend on dietary supply. Median urine generation rates were 1.42 L/cap/day with a dry solids content of 59 g/cap/day. Variation in the volume and composition of urine is caused by differences in physical exertion, environmental conditions, as well as water, salt, and high protein intakes. Urine has a pH 6.2 and contains the largest fractions of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium released from the body. The urinary excretion of nitrogen was significant (10.98 g/cap/day) with urea the most predominant constituent making up over 50% of total organic solids. The dietary intake of food and fluid is the major cause of variation in both the fecal and urine composition and these variables should always be considered if the generation rate, physical, and chemical composition of feces and urine is to be accurately predicted.
01 Sep 2010-Kidney International
TL;DR: It is suggested that the most accurate method to quantify biomarkers requires the collection of timed urine specimens to estimate the actual excretion rate, provided that the biomarker is stable over the period of collection.
Abstract: Urinary biomarkers, such as albumin and other markers of kidney injury, are frequently reported as a normalized ratio to urinary creatinine (UCr) concentration [UCr] to control for variations in urine flow rate. The implicit assumption is that UCr excretion is constant across and within individuals, such that changes in the ratio will reflect changes in biomarker excretion. Using computer simulations of creatinine kinetics, we found that normalized levels of a biomarker reflecting tubular injury can be influenced by dynamic changes in the UCr excretion rate when the glomerular filtration rate changes. Actual timed urine collections from hospitalized patients with changing glomerular filtration rates and/or critical illness exhibited variability in UCr excretion rates across and within individuals. Normalization by [UCr] may, therefore, result in an underestimation or overestimation of the biomarker excretion rate depending on the clinical context. Lower creatinine excretion in the setting of acute kidney injury or poor renal allograft function may amplify a tubular injury biomarker signal, thereby increasing its clinical utility. The variability of creatinine excretion, however, will complicate the determination of a threshold value for normalized biomarkers of acute or chronic kidney disease, including albumin. Thus, we suggest that the most accurate method to quantify biomarkers requires the collection of timed urine specimens to estimate the actual excretion rate, provided that the biomarker is stable over the period of collection. This ideal must be balanced, however, against practical considerations.
01 Sep 2005-Clinical Chemistry
TL;DR: The protein:creatinine ratio on a random urine specimen provides evidence to "rule out" the presence of significant proteinuria as defined by a 24-h urine excretion measurement.
Abstract: Background: Proteinuria is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease and as a predictor of end organ damage. The reference test, a 24-h urine protein estimation, is known to be unreliable. A random urine protein:creatinine ratio has been shown to correlate with a 24-h estimation, but it is not clear whether it can be used to reliably predict the presence of significant proteinuria. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on measurement of the protein:creatinine ratio on a random urine compared with the respective 24-h protein excretion. Likelihood ratios were used to determine the ability of a random urine protein:creatinine ratio to predict the presence or absence of proteinuria. Results: Data were extracted from 16 studies investigating proteinuria in several settings; patient groups studied were primarily those with preeclampsia or renal disease. Sensitivities and specificities for the tests ranged between 69% and 96% and 41% and 97%, respectively, whereas the positive and negative predictive values ranged between 46% and 95% and 45% and 98%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratios ranged between 1.8 and 16.5, and the negative likelihood ratios between 0.06 and 0.35. The cumulative negative likelihood ratio for 10 studies on proteinuria in preeclampsia was 0.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.09–0.24). Conclusion: The protein:creatinine ratio on a random urine specimen provides evidence to “rule out” the presence of significant proteinuria as defined by a 24-h urine excretion measurement.
01 Apr 2005-Kidney International
TL;DR: The diagnostic performance of measuring UAC in a spot morning urine sample in predicting microalbuminuria in subsequent 24-hour urine collections is satisfactory, and, moreover, comparable to that of measuring ACR.
Abstract: The validity of screening based on spot morning urine samples to detect subjects with microalbuminuria in the general population. Background No study has yet investigated the validity of prescreening by albumin measurements in a spot morning urine sample to identify in the general population subjects with microalbuminuria. We therefore tested the diagnostic performance of urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), measured in a spot morning urine sample, in predicting a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) ≥30 mg in subsequent 24-hour urines (microalbuminuria). Methods Subjects (2527) participating in the PREVEND study, a representative sample from the general population, collected a spot morning urine sample and, on average, 77 days later, two 24-hour urine collections. Results The ROC curve of UAC in predicting microalbuminuria has an area-under-the-curve of 0.92 with a discriminator value of 11.2 mg/L. Using this cut-off value for UAC, sensitivity in predicting microalbuminuria is 85.0%, and specificity 85.0%. For ACR these values are, respectively: area-under-the-curve 0.93, discriminator value 9.9 mg/g, sensitivity 87.6%, and specificity 87.5%. Sensitivity for UAC in predicting microalbuminuria does not differ significantly from the sensitivity for ACR, whereas the difference between the specificities of UAC and ACR reaches statistical significance, but is numerically very small. In various subgroups characterized by differences in urinary creatinine excretion, the area-under-the-ROC curve, sensitivity, as well as specificity, do not increase relevantly compared to the results in the overall study population. This holds true for ACR as well as UAC. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of measuring UAC in a spot morning urine sample in predicting microalbuminuria in subsequent 24-hour urine collections is satisfactory, and, moreover, comparable to that of measuring ACR. In order to keep the burden and costs involved in population screening for microalbuminuria as low as possible, we therefore propose prescreening by measuring UAC in a spot morning urine sample. Those subjects with a UAC above a certain predefined level (e.g., 11 mg/L) should be asked to collect timed urine samples.