Author

# Jane S. Murray

Other affiliations: Sigma-Aldrich, Cleveland State University

Bio: Jane S. Murray is an academic researcher from University of New Orleans. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hydrogen bond & Non-covalent interactions. The author has an hindex of 74, co-authored 287 publications receiving 23980 citations. Previous affiliations of Jane S. Murray include Sigma-Aldrich & Cleveland State University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors carried out a natural bond order B3LYP analysis of the molecules CF(3)X, with X = F, Cl, Br and I. The results showed that the Cl and Br atoms in these molecules closely approximate the [Formula: see text] configuration, where the z-axis is along the R-X bond.

Abstract: Halogen bonding refers to the non-covalent interactions of halogen atoms X in some molecules, RX, with negative sites on others. It can be explained by the presence of a region of positive electrostatic potential, the sigma-hole, on the outermost portion of the halogen's surface, centered on the R-X axis. We have carried out a natural bond order B3LYP analysis of the molecules CF(3)X, with X = F, Cl, Br and I. It shows that the Cl, Br and I atoms in these molecules closely approximate the [Formula: see text] configuration, where the z-axis is along the R-X bond. The three unshared pairs of electrons produce a belt of negative electrostatic potential around the central part of X, leaving the outermost region positive, the sigma-hole. This is not found in the case of fluorine, for which the combination of its high electronegativity plus significant sp-hybridization causes an influx of electronic charge that neutralizes the sigma-hole. These factors become progressively less important in proceeding to Cl, Br and I, and their effects are also counteracted by the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents in the remainder of the molecule. Thus a sigma-hole is observed for the Cl in CF(3)Cl, but not in CH(3)Cl.

1,893 citations

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TL;DR: Experimental as well as computational studies indicate that halogen and other sigma-hole interactions can be competitive with hydrogen bonding, which itself can be viewed as a subset of s Sigma-hole bonding.

Abstract: A halogen bond is a highly directional, electrostatically-driven noncovalent interaction between a region of positive electrostatic potential on the outer side of the halogen X in a molecule R–X and a negative site B, such as a lone pair of a Lewis base or the π-electrons of an unsaturated system. The positive region on X corresponds to the electronically-depleted outer lobe of the half-filled p-type orbital of X that is involved in forming the covalent bond to R. This depletion is labeled a σ-hole. The resulting positive electrostatic potential is along the extension of the R–X bond, which accounts for the directionality of halogen bonding. Positive σ-holes can also be found on covalently-bonded Group IV–VI atoms, which can similarly interact electrostatically with negative sites. Since positive σ-holes often exist in conjunction with negative potentials on other portions of the atom's surface, such atoms can interact electrostatically with both nucleophiles and electrophiles, as has been observed in surveys of crystallographic structures. Experimental as well as computational studies indicate that halogen and other σ-hole interactions can be competitive with hydrogen bonding, which itself can be viewed as a subset of σ-hole bonding.

1,332 citations

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TL;DR: A σ-hole bond is a noncovalent interaction between a covalently-bonded atom of Groups IV-VII and a negative site, e.g. a lone pair of a Lewis base or an anion.

Abstract: A σ-hole bond is a noncovalent interaction between a covalently-bonded atom of Groups IV–VII and a negative site, e.g. a lone pair of a Lewis base or an anion. It involves a region of positive electrostatic potential, labeled a σ-hole, on the extension of one of the covalent bonds to the atom. The σ-hole is due to the anisotropy of the atom's charge distribution. Halogen bonding is a subset of σ-hole interactions. Their features and properties can be fully explained in terms of electrostatics and polarization plus dispersion. The strengths of the interactions generally correlate well with the magnitudes of the positive and negative electrostatic potentials of the σ-hole and the negative site. In certain instances, however, polarizabilities must be taken into account explicitly, as the polarization of the negative site reaches a level that can be viewed as a degree of dative sharing (coordinate covalence). In the gas phase, σ-hole interactions with neutral bases are often thermodynamically unfavorable due to the relatively large entropy loss upon complex formation.

1,294 citations

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TL;DR: An explanation for its occurrence in terms of a region of positive electrostatic potential present on the outermost portions of some covalently-bonded halogen atoms is presented.

Abstract: Halogen bonding (XB) is a type of noncovalent interaction between a halogen atom X in one molecule and a negative site in another. X can be chlorine, bromine or iodine. The strength of the interaction increases in the order Cl

1,241 citations

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TL;DR: The electrostatic potential of a system of nuclei and electrons is formulated directly from Coulomb's law and is a physical observable, which can be determined both experimentally and computationally.

Abstract: The electrostatic potential V(r) that is created by a system of nuclei and electrons is formulated directly from Coulomb's law and is a physical observable, which can be determined both experimentally and computationally. When V(r) is evaluated in the outer regions of a molecule, it shows how the latter is ‘seen’ by an approaching reactant, and thus is a useful guide to the molecule's reactive behavior, especially in noncovalent interactions. However, V(r) is a fundamental property of a system, the significance of which goes beyond its role in reactivity. For example, the energy of an atom or molecule can be expressed rigorously in terms of the electrostatic potentials at its nuclei. These and other features of V(r) are discussed in this overview. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2011 1 153-163 DOI: 10.1002/wcms.19

977 citations

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TL;DR: Five practical examples involving a wide variety of systems and analysis methods are given to illustrate the usefulness of Multiwfn, a multifunctional program for wavefunction analysis.

Abstract: Multiwfn is a multifunctional program for wavefunction analysis. Its main functions are: (1) Calculating and visualizing real space function, such as electrostatic potential and electron localization function at point, in a line, in a plane or in a spatial scope. (2) Population analysis. (3) Bond order analysis. (4) Orbital composition analysis. (5) Plot density-of-states and spectrum. (6) Topology analysis for electron density. Some other useful utilities involved in quantum chemistry studies are also provided. The built-in graph module enables the results of wavefunction analysis to be plotted directly or exported to high-quality graphic file. The program interface is very user-friendly and suitable for both research and teaching purpose. The code of Multiwfn is substantially optimized and parallelized. Its efficiency is demonstrated to be significantly higher than related programs with the same functions. Five practical examples involving a wide variety of systems and analysis methods are given to illustrate the usefulness of Multiwfn. The program is free of charge and open-source. Its precompiled file and source codes are available from http://multiwfn.codeplex.com.

17,273 citations

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Pfizer

^{1}TL;DR: Experimental and computational approaches to estimate solubility and permeability in discovery and development settings are described in this article, where the rule of 5 is used to predict poor absorption or permeability when there are more than 5 H-bond donors, 10 Hbond acceptors, and the calculated Log P (CLogP) is greater than 5 (or MlogP > 415).

14,026 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the effective atomic C6 coefficients depend strongly on the bonding environment of an atom in a molecule, and the van der Waals radii and the damping function in the C6R(-6) correction method for density-functional theory calculations.

Abstract: We present a parameter-free method for an accurate determination of long-range van der Waals interactions from mean-field electronic structure calculations. Our method relies on the summation of interatomic C6 coefficients, derived from the electron density of a molecule or solid and accurate reference data for the free atoms. The mean absolute error in the C6 coefficients is 5.5% when compared to accurate experimental values for 1225 intermolecular pairs, irrespective of the employed exchangecorrelation functional. We show that the effective atomic C6 coefficients depend strongly on the bonding environment of an atom in a molecule. Finally, we analyze the van der Waals radii and the damping function in the C6R � 6 correction method for density-functional theory calculations.

4,825 citations

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TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of DFT as a tool for Calculating Atomic andMolecular Properties and its applications, as well as some of the fundamental and Computational aspects.

Abstract: I. Introduction: Conceptual vs Fundamental andComputational Aspects of DFT1793II. Fundamental and Computational Aspects of DFT 1795A. The Basics of DFT: The Hohenberg−KohnTheorems1795B. DFT as a Tool for Calculating Atomic andMolecular Properties: The Kohn−ShamEquations1796C. Electronic Chemical Potential andElectronegativity: Bridging Computational andConceptual DFT1797III. DFT-Based Concepts and Principles 1798A. General Scheme: Nalewajski’s ChargeSensitivity Analysis1798B. Concepts and Their Calculation 18001. Electronegativity and the ElectronicChemical Potential18002. Global Hardness and Softness 18023. The Electronic Fukui Function, LocalSoftness, and Softness Kernel18074. Local Hardness and Hardness Kernel 18135. The Molecular Shape FunctionsSimilarity 18146. The Nuclear Fukui Function and ItsDerivatives18167. Spin-Polarized Generalizations 18198. Solvent Effects 18209. Time Evolution of Reactivity Indices 1821C. Principles 18221. Sanderson’s Electronegativity EqualizationPrinciple18222. Pearson’s Hard and Soft Acids andBases Principle18253. The Maximum Hardness Principle 1829IV. Applications 1833A. Atoms and Functional Groups 1833B. Molecular Properties 18381. Dipole Moment, Hardness, Softness, andRelated Properties18382. Conformation 18403. Aromaticity 1840C. Reactivity 18421. Introduction 18422. Comparison of Intramolecular ReactivitySequences18443. Comparison of Intermolecular ReactivitySequences18494. Excited States 1857D. Clusters and Catalysis 1858V. Conclusions 1860VI. Glossary of Most Important Symbols andAcronyms1860VII. Acknowledgments 1861VIII. Note Added in Proof 1862IX. References 1865

3,890 citations

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01 Jan 2004TL;DR: In this paper, the Kohn-Sham ansatz is used to solve the problem of determining the electronic structure of atoms, and the three basic methods for determining electronic structure are presented.

Abstract: Preface Acknowledgements Notation Part I. Overview and Background Topics: 1. Introduction 2. Overview 3. Theoretical background 4. Periodic solids and electron bands 5. Uniform electron gas and simple metals Part II. Density Functional Theory: 6. Density functional theory: foundations 7. The Kohn-Sham ansatz 8. Functionals for exchange and correlation 9. Solving the Kohn-Sham equations Part III. Important Preliminaries on Atoms: 10. Electronic structure of atoms 11. Pseudopotentials Part IV. Determination of Electronic Structure, The Three Basic Methods: 12. Plane waves and grids: basics 13. Plane waves and grids: full calculations 14. Localized orbitals: tight binding 15. Localized orbitals: full calculations 16. Augmented functions: APW, KKR, MTO 17. Augmented functions: linear methods Part V. Predicting Properties of Matter from Electronic Structure - Recent Developments: 18. Quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) 19. Response functions: photons, magnons ... 20. Excitation spectra and optical properties 21. Wannier functions 22. Polarization, localization and Berry's phases 23. Locality and linear scaling O (N) methods 24. Where to find more Appendixes References Index.

2,690 citations