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Janet E. Rosenbaum

Bio: Janet E. Rosenbaum is an academic researcher from SUNY Downstate Medical Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Condom & Educational attainment. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 44 publications receiving 957 citations. Previous affiliations of Janet E. Rosenbaum include National Bureau of Economic Research & Johns Hopkins University.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Procalcitonin is a useful marker to rule out sepsis and systemic inflammation in the ED and has a positive predictive value and the negative predictive value 98% compared with blood cultures.
Abstract: Rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging, with turnaround times exceeding the timeline for rapid diagnosis. We studied the usefulness of procalcitonin as a marker of BSI in 367 adults admitted to our ED with symptoms of systemic infection. Serum samples obtained at the same time as blood cultures were available from 295 patients. Procalcitonin levels were compared with blood culture results and other clinical data obtained during the ED visit. Procalcitonin levels of less than 0.1 ng/mL were considered negative; all other levels were considered positive. In 16 patients, there was evidence of BSI by blood culture, and 12 (75%) of 16 patients had a procalcitonin level of more than 0.1 ng/mL. In 186 (63.1%) of 295 samples, procalcitonin values were less than 0.1 ng/mL, and all were culture negative. With a calculated threshold of 0.1475 ng/mL for procalcitonin, sensitivity and specificity for the procalcitonin assay were 75% and 79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 17% and the negative predictive value 98% compared with blood cultures. Procalcitonin is a useful marker to rule out sepsis and systemic inflammation in the ED.

142 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sexual behavior of virginity pledgers does not differ from that of closely matched nonpledgers, and pledgers are less likely to protect themselves from pregnancy and disease before marriage.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE. The US government spends more than $200 million annually on abstinence-promotion programs, including virginity pledges. This study compares the sexual activity of adolescent virginity pledgers with matched nonpledgers by using more robust methods than past research. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The subjects for this study were National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health respondents, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students who, when surveyed in 1995, had never had sex or taken a virginity pledge and who were >15 years of age (n = 3440). Adolescents who reported taking a virginity pledge on the 1996 survey (n = 289) were matched with nonpledgers (n = 645) by using exact and nearest-neighbor matching within propensity score calipers on factors including prepledge religiosity and attitudes toward sex and birth control. Pledgers and matched nonpledgers were compared 5 years after the pledge on self-reported sexual behaviors and positive test results for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, and safe sex outside of marriage by use of birth control and condoms in the past year and at last sex. RESULTS. Five years after the pledge, 82% of pledgers denied having ever pledged. Pledgers and matched nonpledgers did not differ in premarital sex, sexually transmitted diseases, and anal and oral sex variables. Pledgers had 0.1 fewer past-year partners but did not differ in lifetime sexual partners and age of first sex. Fewer pledgers than matched nonpledgers used birth control and condoms in the past year and birth control at last sex. CONCLUSIONS. The sexual behavior of virginity pledgers does not differ from that of closely matched nonpledgers, and pledgers are less likely to protect themselves from pregnancy and disease before marriage. Virginity pledges may not affect sexual behavior but may decrease the likelihood of taking precautions during sex. Clinicians should provide birth control information to all adolescents, especially virginity pledgers.

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Twelve years after suspension, suspended youth were less likely than matched nonsuspended youth to have earned bachelor’s degrees or high school diplomas, and were more likely to have been arrested and on probation, suggesting that suspension rather than selection bias explains negative outcomes.
Abstract: A third of U.S. students are suspended over a K-12 school career. Suspended youth have worse adult outcomes than nonsuspended students, but these outcomes could be due to selection bias: that is, s...

101 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Dec 2001-Science
TL;DR: The authors apply the economists' tournament job market model to explain career patterns in bioscience research, which is structured so that the chance of winning a prize--an independent academic position, tenure, scientific renown--motivates researchers.
Abstract: There is a disconnect between the scientific promise of bioscience research and the career prospects facing young bioscientists. Bioscientists work longer hours for less pay, spend many years as lowly paid postdocs, and have greater career uncertainty than most highly educated professionals. We apply the economists' tournament job market model to explain career patterns in bioscience research, which is structured so that the chance of winning a prize--an independent academic position, tenure, scientific renown--motivates researchers. We argue that market forces will not improve career prospects for young bioscientists and suggest policy interventions to make careers more economically rewarding and productive.

99 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation.
Abstract: Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents’ health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents’ responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other risk behaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other Youth Risk Behavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics.

73 citations


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Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce the concept of ''search'' where a buyer wanting to get a better price, is forced to question sellers, and deal with various aspects of finding the necessary information.
Abstract: The author systematically examines one of the important issues of information — establishing the market price. He introduces the concept of «search» — where a buyer wanting to get a better price, is forced to question sellers. The article deals with various aspects of finding the necessary information.

3,790 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the 1966 paperback edition of a publication which first appeared in 1963 has by now been widely reviewed as a worthy contribution to the sociological study of deviant behavior as discussed by the authors, and the authors developed a sequential model of deviance relying on the concept of career, a concept originally developed in studies of occupations.
Abstract: This 1966 paperback edition of a publication which first appeared in 1963 has by now been widely reviewed as a worthy contribution to the sociological study of deviant behavior. Its current appearance as a paperback is a testimonial both to the quality of the work and to the prominence of deviant behavior in this generation. In general the author places deviance in perspective, identifies types of deviant behavior, considers the role of rule makers and enforcers, and some of the problems in studying deviance. In addition, he develops a sequential model of deviance relying on the concept of career, a concept originally developed in studies of occupations. In his study of a particular kind of deviance, the use of marihuana, the author posits and tests systematically an hypothesis about the genesis of marihuana use for pleasure. The hypothesis traces the sequence of changes in individual attitude

2,650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jun 2005-Nature
TL;DR: To protect the integrity of science, the authors must look beyond falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to a wider range of questionable research practices, argue Brian C. Martinson, Melissa S. Anderson and Raymond de Vries.
Abstract: To protect the integrity of science, we must look beyond falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to a wider range of questionable research practices, argue Brian C. Martinson, Melissa S. Anderson and Raymond de Vries. In a questionnaire-based survey of US biomedical researchers, respondents admitted to a range of dubious practices. Transgressions included failing to present data contradicting one's own research (6%) and ignoring data based on a ‘gut feeling’ that it was wrong (15%). Writing on the survey, Martinson et al. call this picture of misbehaviour “striking in its breadth and prevalence”.

931 citations