Other affiliations: McGill University, Université du Québec, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne ...read more
Bio: Janusz Konrad is an academic researcher from Boston University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Motion estimation & Motion compensation. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 182 publications receiving 7391 citations. Previous affiliations of Janusz Konrad include McGill University & Université du Québec.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: A unique change detection benchmark dataset consisting of nearly 90,000 frames in 31 video sequences representing 6 categories selected to cover a wide range of challenges in 2 modalities (color and thermal IR).
Abstract: Change detection is one of the most commonly encountered low-level tasks in computer vision and video processing. A plethora of algorithms have been developed to date, yet no widely accepted, realistic, large-scale video dataset exists for benchmarking different methods. Presented here is a unique change detection benchmark dataset consisting of nearly 90,000 frames in 31 video sequences representing 6 categories selected to cover a wide range of challenges in 2 modalities (color and thermal IR). A distinguishing characteristic of this dataset is that each frame is meticulously annotated for ground-truth foreground, background, and shadow area boundaries — an effort that goes much beyond a simple binary label denoting the presence of change. This enables objective and precise quantitative comparison and ranking of change detection algorithms. This paper presents and discusses various aspects of the new dataset, quantitative performance metrics used, and comparative results for over a dozen previous and new change detection algorithms. The dataset, evaluation tools, and algorithm rankings are available to the public on a website1 and will be updated with feedback from academia and industry in the future.
••23 Jun 2014
TL;DR: The latest release of the changedetection.net dataset is presented, which includes 22 additional videos spanning 5 new categories that incorporate challenges encountered in many surveillance settings and highlights strengths and weaknesses of these methods and identifies remaining issues in change detection.
Abstract: Change detection is one of the most important lowlevel tasks in video analytics. In 2012, we introduced the changedetection.net (CDnet) benchmark, a video dataset devoted to the evalaution of change and motion detection approaches. Here, we present the latest release of the CDnet dataset, which includes 22 additional videos (70; 000 pixel-wise annotated frames) spanning 5 new categories that incorporate challenges encountered in many surveillance settings. We describe these categories in detail and provide an overview of the results of more than a dozen methods submitted to the IEEE Change DetectionWorkshop 2014. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of these methods and identify remaining issues in change detection.
TL;DR: The estimation of 2D motion from time-varying images is reviewed, showing that even ideal constraints may not provide a well-defined estimation criterion and presenting several fast search strategies for the optimization of an estimation criterion.
Abstract: We have reviewed the estimation of 2D motion from time-varying images, paying particular attention to the underlying models, estimation criteria, and optimization strategies. Several parametric and nonparametric models for the representation of motion vector fields and motion trajectory fields have been discussed. For a given region of support, these models determine the dimensionality of the estimation problem as well as the amount of data that has to be interpreted or transmitted thereafter. Also, the interdependence of motion and image data has been addressed. We have shown that even ideal constraints may not provide a well-defined estimation criterion. Therefore, the data term of an estimation criterion is usually supplemented with a smoothness term that can be expressed explicitly or implicitly via a constraining motion model. We have paid particular attention to the statistical criteria based on Markov random fields. Because the optimization of an estimation criterion typically involves a large number of unknowns, we have presented several fast search strategies.
TL;DR: From the experimental results, it is concluded that global motion estimation provides significant performance gains for video material with camera zoom and/or pan and that the robust error criterion can introduce additional performance gains without increasing computational complexity.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an efficient, robust, and fast method for the estimation of global motion from image sequences. The method is generic in that it can accommodate various global motion models, from a simple translation to an eight-parameter perspective model. The algorithm is hierarchical and consists of three stages. In the first stage, a low-pass image pyramid is built. Then, an initial translation is estimated with full-pixel precision at the top of the pyramid using a modified n-step search matching. In the third stage, a gradient descent is executed at each level of the pyramid starting from the initial translation at the coarsest level. Due to the coarse initial estimation and the hierarchical implementation, the method is very fast. To increase robustness to outliers, we replace the usual formulation based on a quadratic error criterion with a truncated quadratic function. We have applied the algorithm to various test sequences within an MPEG-4 coding system. From the experimental results we conclude that global motion estimation provides significant performance gains for video material with camera zoom and/or pan. The gains result from a reduced prediction error and a more compact representation of motion. We also conclude that the robust error criterion can introduce additional performance gains without increasing computational complexity.
TL;DR: A stochastic approach to the estimation of 2D motion vector fields from time-varying images is presented and the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation is incorporated into a hierarchical environment to deal efficiently with large displacements.
Abstract: A stochastic approach to the estimation of 2D motion vector fields from time-varying images is presented. The formulation involves the specification of a deterministic structural model along with stochastic observation and motion field models. Two motion models are proposed: a globally smooth model based on vector Markov random fields and a piecewise smooth model derived from coupled vector-binary Markov random fields. Two estimation criteria are studied. In the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation, the a posteriori probability of motion given data is maximized, whereas in the minimum expected cost (MEC) estimation, the expectation of a certain cost function is minimized. Both algorithms generate sample fields by means of stochastic relaxation implemented via the Gibbs sampler. Two versions are developed: one for a discrete state space and the other for a continuous state space. The MAP estimation is incorporated into a hierarchical environment to deal efficiently with large displacements. >
TL;DR: This paper proposes a new set of benchmarks and evaluation methods for the next generation of optical flow algorithms and analyzes the results obtained to date to draw a large number of conclusions.
Abstract: The quantitative evaluation of optical flow algorithms by Barron et al. (1994) led to significant advances in performance. The challenges for optical flow algorithms today go beyond the datasets and evaluation methods proposed in that paper. Instead, they center on problems associated with complex natural scenes, including nonrigid motion, real sensor noise, and motion discontinuities. We propose a new set of benchmarks and evaluation methods for the next generation of optical flow algorithms. To that end, we contribute four types of data to test different aspects of optical flow algorithms: (1) sequences with nonrigid motion where the ground-truth flow is determined by tracking hidden fluorescent texture, (2) realistic synthetic sequences, (3) high frame-rate video used to study interpolation error, and (4) modified stereo sequences of static scenes. In addition to the average angular error used by Barron et al., we compute the absolute flow endpoint error, measures for frame interpolation error, improved statistics, and results at motion discontinuities and in textureless regions. In October 2007, we published the performance of several well-known methods on a preliminary version of our data to establish the current state of the art. We also made the data freely available on the web at http://vision.middlebury.edu/flow/ . Subsequently a number of researchers have uploaded their results to our website and published papers using the data. A significant improvement in performance has already been achieved. In this paper we analyze the results obtained to date and draw a large number of conclusions from them.
01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: A scheme is developed for classifying the types of motion perceived by a humanlike robot and equations, theorems, concepts, clues, etc., relating the objects, their positions, and their motion to their images on the focal plane are presented.
Abstract: A scheme is developed for classifying the types of motion perceived by a humanlike robot. It is assumed that the robot receives visual images of the scene using a perspective system model. Equations, theorems, concepts, clues, etc., relating the objects, their positions, and their motion to their images on the focal plane are presented. >
TL;DR: A framework based on robust estimation is presented that addresses violations of the brightness constancy and spatial smoothness assumptions caused by multiple motions of optical flow, and is applied to standard formulations of the optical flow problem thus reducing their sensitivity to violations of their underlying assumptions.
Abstract: Most approaches for estimating optical flow assume that, within a finite image region, only a single motion is present. Thissingle motion assumptionis violated in common situations involving transparency, depth discontinuities, independently moving objects, shadows, and specular reflections. To robustly estimate optical flow, the single motion assumption must be relaxed. This paper presents a framework based onrobust estimationthat addresses violations of the brightness constancy and spatial smoothness assumptions caused by multiple motions. We show how therobust estimation frameworkcan be applied to standard formulations of the optical flow problem thus reducing their sensitivity to violations of their underlying assumptions. The approach has been applied to three standard techniques for recovering optical flow: area-based regression, correlation, and regularization with motion discontinuities. This paper focuses on the recovery of multiple parametric motion models within a region, as well as the recovery of piecewise-smooth flow fields, and provides examples with natural and synthetic image sequences.
TL;DR: Efficiency figures show that the proposed technique for motion detection outperforms recent and proven state-of-the-art methods in terms of both computation speed and detection rate.
Abstract: This paper presents a technique for motion detection that incorporates several innovative mechanisms. For example, our proposed technique stores, for each pixel, a set of values taken in the past at the same location or in the neighborhood. It then compares this set to the current pixel value in order to determine whether that pixel belongs to the background, and adapts the model by choosing randomly which values to substitute from the background model. This approach differs from those based upon the classical belief that the oldest values should be replaced first. Finally, when the pixel is found to be part of the background, its value is propagated into the background model of a neighboring pixel. We describe our method in full details (including pseudo-code and the parameter values used) and compare it to other background subtraction techniques. Efficiency figures show that our method outperforms recent and proven state-of-the-art methods in terms of both computation speed and detection rate. We also analyze the performance of a downscaled version of our algorithm to the absolute minimum of one comparison and one byte of memory per pixel. It appears that even such a simplified version of our algorithm performs better than mainstream techniques.
••16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: A conceptually clear and intuitive algorithm for contrast-based saliency estimation that outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches and can be formulated in a unified way using high-dimensional Gaussian filters.
Abstract: Saliency estimation has become a valuable tool in image processing. Yet, existing approaches exhibit considerable variation in methodology, and it is often difficult to attribute improvements in result quality to specific algorithm properties. In this paper we reconsider some of the design choices of previous methods and propose a conceptually clear and intuitive algorithm for contrast-based saliency estimation. Our algorithm consists of four basic steps. First, our method decomposes a given image into compact, perceptually homogeneous elements that abstract unnecessary detail. Based on this abstraction we compute two measures of contrast that rate the uniqueness and the spatial distribution of these elements. From the element contrast we then derive a saliency measure that produces a pixel-accurate saliency map which uniformly covers the objects of interest and consistently separates fore- and background. We show that the complete contrast and saliency estimation can be formulated in a unified way using high-dimensional Gaussian filters. This contributes to the conceptual simplicity of our method and lends itself to a highly efficient implementation with linear complexity. In a detailed experimental evaluation we analyze the contribution of each individual feature and show that our method outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches.