Jeffrey T. Foster
Other affiliations: University of New Hampshire, National Museum of Natural History, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign ...read more
Bio: Jeffrey T. Foster is an academic researcher from Northern Arizona University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 127 publications receiving 5143 citations. Previous affiliations of Jeffrey T. Foster include University of New Hampshire & National Museum of Natural History.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Translational Genomics Research Institute1, Statens Serum Institut2, Technical University of Denmark3, Northern Arizona University4, University of Ljubljana5, Friedrich Loeffler Institute6, Ghent University7, ANSES8, Complutense University of Madrid9, Paris Diderot University10, University of Iowa11, University of Mississippi Medical Center12, Ontario Veterinary College13, Wenzhou Medical College14
TL;DR: The results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA, which appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance.
Abstract: Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock-associated MRSA possessing three different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) types (IV, V, and VII-like) including nine subtypes. The human-associated isolates from the basal clades carried phages encoding human innate immune modulators that were largely missing among the livestock-associated isolates. Our results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA. The lineage appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Further analyses are required to estimate the number of independent genetic events leading to the methicillin-resistant sublineages, but the diversity of SCCmec subtypes is suggestive of strong and diverse antimicrobial selection associated with food animal production. IMPORTANCE Modern food animal production is characterized by densely concentrated animals and routine antibiotic use, which may facilitate the emergence of novel antibiotic-resistant zoonotic pathogens. Our findings strongly support the idea that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated as MSSA in humans. The jump of CC398 from humans to livestock was accompanied by the loss of phage-carried human virulence genes, which likely attenuated its zoonotic potential, but it was also accompanied by the acquisition of tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Our findings exemplify a bidirectional zoonotic exchange and underscore the potential public health risks of widespread antibiotic use in food animal production.
TL;DR: It is shown that Staphylococcus aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.
Abstract: We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.
University of California, Santa Cruz1, University College Dublin2, Northern Arizona University3, University of New Hampshire4, Bat Conservation Trust5, Masaryk University6, Maryland Department of Natural Resources Police7, Radboud University Nijmegen8, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation9, Charles University in Prague10, National Museum of Natural History11, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries12, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources13, Pennsylvania Game Commission14
TL;DR: The effects of disease on the local abundances and distributions of species at continental scales are investigated by examining the impacts of white-nose syndrome, an infectious disease of hibernating bats, which has recently emerged in Europe.
Abstract: Aim We investigated the effects of disease on the local abundances and distributions of species at continental scales by examining the impacts of white-nose syndrome, an infectious disease of hibernating bats, which has recently emerged in
TL;DR: This study is the first, to the best of the knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease, and suggests the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation.
Abstract: Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread
TL;DR: Here it is illustrated by examples that conservation practitioners utilize more genomic research than is often apparent and the work of nonacademic laboratories, some of which are not always well represented in peer-reviewed literature.
Abstract: We agree with Shafer et al.  that there is a need for well-documented case studies of the application of genomics in conservation and management as well as increased communication between academics and natural resource managers. However, we challenge Shafer et al.’s  relatively pessimistic assertion that ‘conservation genomics is far from seeing regular application’. Here we illustrate by examples that conservation practitioners utilize more genomic research than is often apparent. In addition, we highlight the work of nonacademic laboratories [government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)], some of which are not always well represented in peer-reviewed literature.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
Abstract: The relationship between the two estimates of genetic variation at the DNA level, namely the number of segregating sites and the average number of nucleotide differences estimated from pairwise comparison, is investigated. It is found that the correlation between these two estimates is large when the sample size is small, and decreases slowly as the sample size increases. Using the relationship obtained, a statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis is developed. This method needs only the data of DNA polymorphism, namely the genetic variation within population at the DNA level. A simple method of computer simulation, that was used in order to obtain the distribution of a new statistic developed, is also presented. Applying this statistical method to the five regions of DNA sequences in Drosophila melanogaster, it is found that large insertion/deletion (greater than 100 bp) is deleterious. It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
01 Jun 2012
TL;DR: SPAdes as mentioned in this paper is a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data).
Abstract: The lion's share of bacteria in various environments cannot be cloned in the laboratory and thus cannot be sequenced using existing technologies. A major goal of single-cell genomics is to complement gene-centric metagenomic data with whole-genome assemblies of uncultivated organisms. Assembly of single-cell data is challenging because of highly non-uniform read coverage as well as elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. We describe SPAdes, a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler (specialized for single-cell data) and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data). SPAdes generates single-cell assemblies, providing information about genomes of uncultivatable bacteria that vastly exceeds what may be obtained via traditional metagenomics studies. SPAdes is available online ( http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades ). It is distributed as open source software.
TL;DR: A web server providing a convenient way of identifying acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in completely sequenced isolates was created, and the method was evaluated on WGS chromosomes and plasmids of 30 isolates.
Abstract: Objectives Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: The sheer volume and scope of data posed by this flood of data pose a significant challenge to the development of efficient and intuitive visualization tools able to scale to very large data sets and to flexibly integrate multiple data types, including clinical data.
Abstract: Rapid improvements in sequencing and array-based platforms are resulting in a flood of diverse genome-wide data, including data from exome and whole-genome sequencing, epigenetic surveys, expression profiling of coding and noncoding RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number profiling, and functional assays. Analysis of these large, diverse data sets holds the promise of a more comprehensive understanding of the genome and its relation to human disease. Experienced and knowledgeable human review is an essential component of this process, complementing computational approaches. This calls for efficient and intuitive visualization tools able to scale to very large data sets and to flexibly integrate multiple data types, including clinical data. However, the sheer volume and scope of data pose a significant challenge to the development of such tools.
01 Jan 2010