Author

# Jeffrey W. Kysar

Other affiliations: Columbia University Medical Center, Harvard University, Brown University

Bio: Jeffrey W. Kysar is an academic researcher from Columbia University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Deformation (engineering) & Electron backscatter diffraction. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 139 publication(s) receiving 21356 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Jeffrey W. Kysar include Columbia University Medical Center & Harvard University.

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##### Papers

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TL;DR: Graphene is established as the strongest material ever measured, and atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.

15,863 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that the elastic stiffness of CVD-graphene is identical to that of pristine graphene if postprocessing steps avoid damage or rippling, and its strength is only slightly reduced despite the existence of grain boundaries.

Abstract: Pristine graphene is the strongest material ever measured. However, large-area graphene films produced by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are polycrystalline and thus contain grain boundaries that can potentially weaken the material. We combined structural characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy with nanoindentation in order to study the mechanical properties of CVD-graphene films with different grain sizes. We show that the elastic stiffness of CVD-graphene is identical to that of pristine graphene if postprocessing steps avoid damage or rippling. Its strength is only slightly reduced despite the existence of grain boundaries. Indentation tests directly on grain boundaries confirm that they are almost as strong as pristine. Graphene films consisting entirely of well-stitched grain boundaries can retain ultrahigh strength, which is critical for a large variety of applications, such as flexible electronics and strengthening components.

703 citations

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TL;DR: A new material design in the form of a nanolayered composite consisting of alternating layers of metal (copper or nickel) and monolayer graphene that has ultra-high strengths of 1.5 and 4.0 GPa indicates the effectiveness of graphene in blocking dislocation propagation across the metal-graphene interface.

Abstract: Graphene is a single-atomic-layer material with excellent mechanical properties and has the potential to enhance the strength of composites. Its two-dimensional geometry, high intrinsic strength and modulus can effectively constrain dislocation motion, resulting in the significant strengthening of metals. Here we demonstrate a new material design in the form of a nanolayered composite consisting of alternating layers of metal (copper or nickel) and monolayer graphene that has ultra-high strengths of 1.5 and 4.0 GPa for copper-graphene with 70-nm repeat layer spacing and nickel-graphene with 100-nm repeat layer spacing, respectively. The ultra-high strengths of these metal-graphene nanolayered structures indicate the effectiveness of graphene in blocking dislocation propagation across the metal-graphene interface. Ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy compression tests and molecular dynamics simulations confirm a build-up of dislocations at the graphene interface.

422 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a thermodynamically rigorous nonlinear elastic constitutive equation was derived for two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide, and the authors used first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to predict the behavior of suspended monolayer MoS{}$ subjected to a spherical indenter load at finite strains in a multiple-length-scale finite element analysis model.

Abstract: This research explores the nonlinear elastic properties of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide. We derive a thermodynamically rigorous nonlinear elastic constitutive equation and then calculate the nonlinear elastic response of two-dimensional MoS${}_{2}$ with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The nonlinear elastic properties are used to predict the behavior of suspended monolayer MoS${}_{2}$ subjected to a spherical indenter load at finite strains in a multiple-length-scale finite element analysis model. The model is validated experimentally by indenting suspended circular MoS${}_{2}$ membranes with an atomic force microscope. We find that the two-dimensional Young's modulus and intrinsic strength of monolayer MoS${}_{2}$ are 130 and 16.5 N/m, respectively. The results approach Griffith's predicted intrinsic strength limit of ${\ensuremath{\sigma}}_{\mathrm{int}}\ensuremath{\sim}\frac{E}{9}$, where $E$ is the Young's modulus. This study reveals the predictive power of first-principles density functional theory in the derivation of nonlinear elastic properties of two-dimensional MoS${}_{2}$. Furthermore, the study bridges three main gaps that hinder understanding of material properties: DFT to finite element analysis, experimental results to DFT, and the nanoscale to the microscale. In bridging these three gaps, the experimental results validate the DFT calculations and the multiscale constitutive model.

355 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a thermodynamically rigorous continuum description of the elastic response is formulated by expanding the elastic strain energy density in a Taylor series in strain truncated after the fifth-order term.

Abstract: The nonlinear in-plane elastic properties of graphene are calculated using density-functional theory. A thermodynamically rigorous continuum description of the elastic response is formulated by expanding the elastic strain energy density in a Taylor series in strain truncated after the fifth-order term. Upon accounting for the symmetries of graphene, a total of fourteen nonzero independent elastic constants are determined by least-squares fit to the ab initio calculations. The nonlinear continuum description is valid for infinitesimal and finite strains under arbitrary in-plane tensile loading in circumstance for which the bending stiffness can be neglected. The continuum formulation is suitable for incorporation into the finite element method.

337 citations

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01 May 1993

TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.

Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

24,496 citations

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TL;DR: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy and the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure is traced.

Abstract: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy Through characterization by absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity spectroscopy, we trace the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure With decreasing thickness, the indirect band gap, which lies below the direct gap in the bulk material, shifts upwards in energy by more than 06 eV This leads to a crossover to a direct-gap material in the limit of the single monolayer Unlike the bulk material, the MoS₂ monolayer emits light strongly The freestanding monolayer exhibits an increase in luminescence quantum efficiency by more than a factor of 10⁴ compared with the bulk material

11,041 citations

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TL;DR: This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.

Abstract: Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have zero effective mass, and can travel for micrometers without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than that of copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases, and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a benchtop experiment. This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop.

10,893 citations

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TL;DR: The direct synthesis of large-scale graphene films using chemical vapour deposition on thin nickel layers is reported, and two different methods of patterning the films and transferring them to arbitrary substrates are presented, implying that the quality of graphene grown by chemical vapours is as high as mechanically cleaved graphene.

Abstract: Problems associated with large-scale pattern growth of graphene constitute one of the main obstacles to using this material in device applications. Recently, macroscopic-scale graphene films were prepared by two-dimensional assembly of graphene sheets chemically derived from graphite crystals and graphene oxides. However, the sheet resistance of these films was found to be much larger than theoretically expected values. Here we report the direct synthesis of large-scale graphene films using chemical vapour deposition on thin nickel layers, and present two different methods of patterning the films and transferring them to arbitrary substrates. The transferred graphene films show very low sheet resistance of approximately 280 Omega per square, with approximately 80 per cent optical transparency. At low temperatures, the monolayers transferred to silicon dioxide substrates show electron mobility greater than 3,700 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and exhibit the half-integer quantum Hall effect, implying that the quality of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition is as high as mechanically cleaved graphene. Employing the outstanding mechanical properties of graphene, we also demonstrate the macroscopic use of these highly conducting and transparent electrodes in flexible, stretchable, foldable electronics.

9,394 citations

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TL;DR: An overview of the synthesis, properties, and applications of graphene and related materials (primarily, graphite oxide and its colloidal suspensions and materials made from them), from a materials science perspective.

Abstract: There is intense interest in graphene in fields such as physics, chemistry, and materials science, among others. Interest in graphene's exceptional physical properties, chemical tunability, and potential for applications has generated thousands of publications and an accelerating pace of research, making review of such research timely. Here is an overview of the synthesis, properties, and applications of graphene and related materials (primarily, graphite oxide and its colloidal suspensions and materials made from them), from a materials science perspective.

7,753 citations