Bio: Jennifer Hall is an academic researcher from University of the West of England. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dignity & Spirituality. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 33 publications receiving 460 citations. Previous affiliations of Jennifer Hall include Bournemouth University & University of Sheffield.
TL;DR: It appears that weight concerns have a particular negative impact upon HRQoL, although the role of body mass index in affecting HRZoL scores is inconclusive from the available evidence.
Abstract: The symptoms typically associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as acne, hirsutism, irregular menses, amenorrhoea, obesity and subfertility are a major source of psychological morbidity and can negatively affect quality of life (QoL). We systematically searched the literature to identify the impact of symptoms and treatments for PCOS on health-related QoL (HRQoL) and to report on the types and psychometric properties of the instruments used. Papers were retrieved by systematically searching four electronic databases and hand searching relevant reference lists and bibliographies. Nineteen papers used a standardized questionnaire to measure health status; of these 12 (63.2%) used generic tools and 8 (42%) used the disease-specific PCOS questionnaire. Although a meta-analysis was not possible, it appears that weight concerns have a particular negative impact upon HRQoL, although the role of body mass index in affecting HRQoL scores is inconclusive from the available evidence. Acne is the area least reported upon in terms of its impact upon HRQoL. With the exception of three studies, most of the research has focused upon adult women with PCOS. Despite the benefits of HRQoL measures in research, few are being used to evaluate the outcomes of treatment for PCOS upon the subjective health status of women with the condition.
TL;DR: In patients hospitalised with COVID-19, baricitinib significantly reduced the risk of death but the size of benefit was somewhat smaller than that suggested by previous trials.
TL;DR: Introduction of spiritual care guidelines into midwifery practice do not address the spiritual meaningful significance of childbirth, and if childbirth spirituality is relegated to a spiritual care tick box culture this would be a travesty.
Abstract: Background Emerging evidence points to childbirth as a spiritually felt meaningful occasion. Although growing literature and development of guidelines charge the midwife to provide spiritual care felt spiritual experiences are not addressed. There is need to revisit contemporary approaches to spiritual care in midwifery lest something of significance becomes lost in policy rhetoric. Aim The aim of this discussion paper is to bring to the surface what is meant by spiritual care and spiritual experiences, to increase awareness about spirituality in childbirth and midwifery and move beyond the constraints of structured defined protocols. Methods The authors’ own studies and other's research that focuses on the complex contextual experiences of childbirth related to spirituality are discussed in relation to the growing interest in spiritual care assessments and guidelines. Findings There is a growing presence in the literature about how spirituality is a concern to the wellbeing of human beings. Although spirituality remains on the peripheral of current discourse about childbirth. Spiritual care guidelines are now being developed. However spiritual care guidelines do not appear to acknowledge the lived-experience of childbirth as spiritually meaningful. Conclusion Introduction of spiritual care guidelines into midwifery practice do not address the spiritual meaningful significance of childbirth. If childbirth spirituality is relegated to a spiritual care tick box culture this would be a travesty. The depth of spirituality that inheres uniquely in the experience of childbirth would remain silenced and hidden. Spiritual experiences are felt and beckon sensitive and tactful practice beyond words and formulaic questions.
TL;DR: The views and values women have of pregnancy and birth and the powerful, spiritual relationship they have with the unborn, indicates that further discussion and research needs to be carried out in this area.
Abstract: Aim The aim of this paper was to explore the issues surrounding the spirit of the unborn child Background Pregnancy and birth have been recognised to have a spiritual nature by women and health professionals caring for them Midwives and nurses are expected to have a holistic approach to care I suggest that for care to be truly holistic exploration is required of the spiritual nature of the unborn fetus Methods Historical, philosophical and religious views of the spirit of the fetus, are explored as well as those of women Investigation was made of views of the timing of ‘ensoulment’ Results The review demonstrates the value women place on the sacredness of pregnancy and birth, and that the spiritual nature of the unborn should be recognised Conclusion This paper shows that the views and values women have of pregnancy and birth and the powerful, spiritual relationship they have with the unborn, indicates that further discussion and research needs to be carried out in this area Relevance to clinical practice It is recommended that all who work with women who are pregnant should recognise the spiritual nature of the unborn when carrying out care
TL;DR: Assessment of community-based interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast feeding at four to six months in infants in low- and low-middle-income countries shows that good-quality randomised controlled trials are possible and are therefore a viable option.
Abstract: Background only about 25% of babies are exclusively breast fed until six months of age in developing countries and, given their greater risk of infection and infant mortality, there is a need to investigate ways of increasing this. The aim of this review is to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast feeding at four to six months in infants in low- and low–middle-income countries. Methods a systematic review of literature identified through searches of Medline, Global Health and CINAHL databases to identify randomised controlled trials of community-based interventions to improve the rate of exclusive breast feeding in low- and low–middle-income countries. Findings four studies, from four different countries, were included in the final review. Although they evaluated slightly different interventions, all showed a significant improvement in the rate of exclusive breast feeding with a pooled odds ratio of 5.90 (95% confidence interval 1.81–18.6) on random effects meta-analysis. Conclusion community-based interventions in low- and low–middle-income countries can substantially increase the rates of exclusive breast feeding and are therefore a viable option. The interventions included in the review varied, indicating that there are a number of ways in which this might be achieved; it is recommended that these are used as a starting point for determining the most appropriate intervention with regard to the setting. Given the importance of this issue, the lack of research in the area is surprising. The studies in the review demonstrate that good-quality randomised controlled trials of this area are possible and should encourage further research.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A review of the collected works of John Tate can be found in this paper, where the authors present two volumes of the Abel Prize for number theory, Parts I, II, edited by Barry Mazur and Jean-Pierre Serre.
Abstract: This is a review of Collected Works of John Tate. Parts I, II, edited by Barry Mazur and Jean-Pierre Serre. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island, 2016. For several decades it has been clear to the friends and colleagues of John Tate that a “Collected Works” was merited. The award of the Abel Prize to Tate in 2010 added impetus, and finally, in Tate’s ninety-second year we have these two magnificent volumes, edited by Barry Mazur and Jean-Pierre Serre. Beyond Tate’s published articles, they include five unpublished articles and a selection of his letters, most accompanied by Tate’s comments, and a collection of photographs of Tate. For an overview of Tate’s work, the editors refer the reader to . Before discussing the volumes, I describe some of Tate’s work. 1. Hecke L-series and Tate’s thesis Like many budding number theorists, Tate’s favorite theorem when young was Gauss’s law of quadratic reciprocity. When he arrived at Princeton as a graduate student in 1946, he was fortunate to find there the person, Emil Artin, who had discovered the most general reciprocity law, so solving Hilbert’s ninth problem. By 1920, the German school of algebraic number theorists (Hilbert, Weber, . . .) together with its brilliant student Takagi had succeeded in classifying the abelian extensions of a number field K: to each group I of ideal classes in K, there is attached an extension L of K (the class field of I); the group I determines the arithmetic of the extension L/K, and the Galois group of L/K is isomorphic to I. Artin’s contribution was to prove (in 1927) that there is a natural isomorphism from I to the Galois group of L/K. When the base field contains an appropriate root of 1, Artin’s isomorphism gives a reciprocity law, and all possible reciprocity laws arise this way. In the 1930s, Chevalley reworked abelian class field theory. In particular, he replaced “ideals” with his “idèles” which greatly clarified the relation between the local and global aspects of the theory. For his thesis, Artin suggested that Tate do the same for Hecke L-series. When Hecke proved that the abelian L-functions of number fields (generalizations of Dirichlet’s L-functions) have an analytic continuation throughout the plane with a functional equation of the expected type, he saw that his methods applied even to a new kind of L-function, now named after him. Once Tate had developed his harmonic analysis of local fields and of the idèle group, he was able prove analytic continuation and functional equations for all the relevant L-series without Hecke’s complicated theta-formulas. Received by the editors September 5, 2016. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 01A75, 11-06, 14-06. c ©2017 American Mathematical Society
Utrecht University1, University of Alabama at Birmingham2, Pennsylvania State University3, Columbia University4, University of Palermo5, University of California, San Diego6, Hacettepe University7, Erasmus University Medical Center8, Cardiff University9, University of Siena10, University of Colombo11, University of Adelaide12, Northwestern University13, Imperial College London14, University of Oklahoma15, University of California, Los Angeles16, University of Pennsylvania17
TL;DR: Relevant topics addressed-all dealt with in a systematic fashion-include adolescence, hirsutism and acne, contraception, menstrual cycle abnormalities, quality of life, ethnicity, pregnancy complications, long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health, and finally cancer risk.
Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females, with a high prevalence. The etiology of this heterogeneous condition remains obscure, and its phenotype expression varies. Two widely cited previous ESHRE/ASRM sponsored PCOS consensus workshops focused on diagnosis (published in 2004) and infertility management (published in 2008), respectively. The present third PCOS consensus report summarizes current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps regarding various women’s health aspects of PCOS. Relevant topics addressed—all dealt with in a systematic fashion—include adolescence, hirsutism and acne, contraception, menstrual cycle abnormalities, quality of life, ethnicity, pregnancy complications, long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health, and finally cancer risk. Additional, comprehensive background information is provided separately in an extended online publication.
TL;DR: An expert panel in PCOS and CVD reviewed literature and presented recommendations, finding women with PCOS with obesity, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, and subclinical vascular disease are at risk, whereas those with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for CVD.
Abstract: Objective: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often have cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society created a panel to provide evidence-based reviews of studies assessing PCOS-CVD risk relationships and to develop guidelines for preventing CVD. Participants: An expert panel in PCOS and CVD reviewed literature and presented recommendations. Evidence: Only studies comparing PCOS with control patients were included. All electronic databases were searched; reviews included individual studies/databases, systematic reviews, abstracts, and expert data. Articles were excluded if other hyperandrogenic disorders were not excluded, PCOS diagnosis was unclear, controls were not described, or methodology precluded evaluation. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were confirmed by at least two reviewers and arbitrated by a third. Consensus Process: Systematic reviews of CVD risk factors were compiled and submitted for approval to the AE-PCOS Society B...
TL;DR: A balanced review of the latest advances and current limitations in knowledge about PCOS is provided, providing a few clear and simple principles, based on current evidence-based clinical guidelines, for the proper diagnosis and long-term clinical management of women with PCOS.
Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic disorders in premenopausal women. Heterogeneous by nature, PCOS is defined by a combination of signs and symptoms of androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction in the absence of other specific diagnoses. The aetiology of this syndrome remains largely unknown, but mounting evidence suggests that PCOS might be a complex multigenic disorder with strong epigenetic and environmental influences, including diet and lifestyle factors. PCOS is frequently associated with abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors. The diagnosis and treatment of PCOS are not complicated, requiring only the judicious application of a few well-standardized diagnostic methods and appropriate therapeutic approaches addressing hyperandrogenism, the consequences of ovarian dysfunction and the associated metabolic disorders. This article aims to provide a balanced review of the latest advances and current limitations in our knowledge about PCOS while also providing a few clear and simple principles, based on current evidence-based clinical guidelines, for the proper diagnosis and long-term clinical management of women with PCOS.
Université de Sherbrooke1, World Health Organization2, McMaster University3, University of Indonesia4, Geneva College5, University of California, San Francisco6, Peking Union Medical College Hospital7, Royal Melbourne Hospital8, Ziauddin University9, St Thomas' Hospital10, All India Institute of Medical Sciences11, Aga Khan University12, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust13, St. George's University14, University of Colombo15, University of São Paulo16, Charité17, Ghent University18, Andrés Bello National University19, King's College London20, Hanoi Medical University21, Stellenbosch University22, University of Oxford23, Lanzhou University24, University of Liverpool25
TL;DR: A standing international panel of content experts, patients, clinicians, and methodologists, free from relevant conflicts of interest, produce recommendations for clinical practice, containing a strong recommendation for systemic corticosteroids in patients with severe and critical covid-19, and a weak or conditional recommendation against systemic cortiosteroids for non-severe patients.
Abstract: Clinical question What is the role of drug interventions in the treatment of patients with covid-19? New recommendation Increased attention on ivermectin as a potential treatment for covid-19 triggered this recommendation. The panel made a recommendation against ivermectin in patients with covid-19 regardless of disease severity, except in the context of a clinical trial. Prior recommendations (a) a strong recommendation against the use of hydroxychloroquine in patients with covid-19, regardless of disease severity; (b) a strong recommendation against the use of lopinavir-ritonavir in patients with covid-19, regardless of disease severity; (c) a strong recommendation for systemic corticosteroids in patients with severe and critical covid-19; (d) a conditional recommendation against systemic corticosteroids in patients with non-severe covid-19, and (e) a conditional recommendation against remdesivir in hospitalised patients with covid-19. How this guideline was created This living guideline is from the World Health Organization (WHO) and provides up to date covid-19 guidance to inform policy and practice worldwide. Magic Evidence Ecosystem Foundation (MAGIC) provided methodological support. A living systematic review with network analysis informed the recommendations. An international guideline development group (GDG) of content experts, clinicians, patients, an ethicist and methodologists produced recommendations following standards for trustworthy guideline development using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Understanding the new recommendation There is insufficient evidence to be clear to what extent, if any, ivermectin is helpful or harmful in treating covid-19. There was a large degree of uncertainty in the evidence about ivermectin on mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, need for hospital admission, time to clinical improvement, and other patient-important outcomes. There is potential for harm with an increased risk of adverse events leading to study drug discontinuation. Applying pre-determined values and preferences, the panel inferred that almost all well informed patients would want to receive ivermectin only in the context of a randomised trial, given that the evidence left a very high degree of uncertainty on important effects. Updates This is a living guideline. It replaces earlier versions (4 September, 20 November, and 17 December 2020) and supersedes the BMJ Rapid Recommendations on remdesivir published on 2 July 2020. The previous versions can be found as data supplements. New recommendations will be published as updates to this guideline. Readers note This is the fourth version (update 3) of the living guideline (BMJ 2020;370:m3379). When citing this article, please consider adding the update number and date of access for clarity.