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Jennifer L. Huck

Bio: Jennifer L. Huck is an academic researcher from Carroll University. The author has contributed to research in topics: General strain theory & Theory of criminal justice. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 11 publications receiving 86 citations. Previous affiliations of Jennifer L. Huck include Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

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Reference EntryDOI
22 Jan 2014
TL;DR: General strain theory (GST) is considered the most recent theoretical framework to emerge from traditional strain perspectives as discussed by the authors, which assumes that delinquency and crime are forms of coping mechanisms that result from strain and stressful events and suggests policy implications to decrease deviant coping through the reduction of strain and stress exposure.
Abstract: General strain theory (GST) is considered the most recent theoretical framework to emerge from traditional strain perspectives. GST focuses strictly on negative relationships and assumes that delinquency and crime are forms of coping mechanisms that result from strain and stressful events. While GST is considered an overall micro-level perspective, recent research has emerged which argues that GST can also be applicable at the macro-level and also has the potential to explain group differences (e.g., age, gender, race) in delinquent and criminal behavior. The theory also suggests policy implications to decrease deviant coping through the reduction of strain and stress exposure. Keywords: Causation; Crime; Criminology; Sociology; Sociology of Crime

65 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Truancy Prevention Initiative has been implemented in New Orleans post-Hurricane Katrina under the direction of the Recovery School District to reduce levels of truancy, increase graduation rates, and decrease youth crime as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Truancy has been identified as a risk factor of criminal behavior but results are mixed as to the best means to reduce this school-based concern. The Truancy Prevention Initiative has been implemented in New Orleans post-Hurricane Katrina under the direction of the Recovery School District to reduce levels of truancy, increase graduation rates, and decrease youth crime. This article emphasizes the statutes and ordinances behind this initiative in order for it to be compared to current evidence-based literature to forecast its effectiveness. In addition, social disorganization and deterrence theories are used to analyze the foundational elements of the Truancy Prevention Initiative. The Truancy Prevention Initiative is a promising program that requires process and outcome evaluations to draw a stronger conclusion of its effectiveness.

13 citations

01 Aug 2012
TL;DR: Moon et al. as discussed by the authors used a sample of university students to complete a comprehensive analysis of the main tenets of general strain theory with the specific inclusion of conditioning variables such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and delinquent peers, and expansion of the traditional measures of affective states, coping strategies, and types of deviant and criminal behaviors.
Abstract: General strain theory has been tested critically, but the development of the theory has lagged because tests of the full model are rare, and the integration and specification of conditioning variables that affect crime and deviance are not clear. This test of general strain theory used a young adult sample (n=679) of university students to complete a comprehensive analysis of the main tenets of general strain theory with the specific inclusion of conditioning variables such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and delinquent peers, and expansion of the traditional measures of affective states, coping strategies, and types of deviant and criminal behaviors. General support for the theory was confirmed. The results show that perceptions of success and fairness, a more traditional measure of strain, are not related to crime and deviance, but the more subjective measure of stress, consistent with general strain theory, does have a relationship with crime and deviance. Implications based on these findings are presented. Keywords: coping; crime; delinquency; general strain; negative affect; stress INTRODUCTION For nearly two decades, Agnew's (1992) general strain theory of crime and delinquency has generated much research and identified the need to examine critically and specify the personal, social, and psychological aspects of life related to individual criminal behavior. Agnew's theory offered extensions to the domain of strain theories by embracing traditions of the theory that centered upon an individual's appreciation for achieving or expecting to achieve personal goals, while expanding the sources of strain to include the removal or threatened removal of positively valued stimuli and the introduction of negatively valued stimuli. Agnew presented these strain sources as precursors to negative emotions that became a necessary intermediate status before leading a strained individual to delinquent or criminal behaviors. Individuals who experienced these negative emotions, however, might be able to disengage from a criminal trajectory if they were capable of evoking positive coping mechanisms, which might be cognitive, emotional, or behavioral (Agnew 2001; Brezina 1996; Broidy 2001). General strain theory proposes that strain, especially when combined with negative emotions such as anger and negative coping such as fighting, will lead to criminal behaviors. Generally, this model of how strain is connected to delinquency and crime is dynamic and identifies multiple testable propositions that relate to the individual human nature of behaviors. The connection between strain and deviant or criminal behaviors has been empirically examined, and moderate support exists (see Akers and Sellers 2009; Kubrin, Stuckey and Krohn 2009), with several investigations confirming a relationship between negative emotions and strain (e.g., Brezina 1996; Broidy 2001; Mazerolle and Piquero 1997). Despite the vast literature, the specification of strain, and its connection to a negative affect, is incomplete and additional specification of causal pathways is needed (Kubrin, Stuckey and Krohn 2009). The validity of this causal relationship seems to be accepted, but instead of taking it for granted, it is important to continue examining general strain theory and to identify its ability to explain a range of crimes and criminals. Many tests of general strain theory tested its ability to explain adolescent delinquency (Agnew and Brezina 1997; Agnew, et al. 2002; Aseltine, Gore, and Gordon 2000; Baron 2007; Brezina 1996; Brezina 2010; Hoffman and Cerbone 1999; Hoffman and Miller 1998; Hoffman and Su 1997; Mazerolle, et al. 2000; Mazerolle and Maahs 2000; Paternoster and Mazerolle 1994; Piquero and Sealock 2004), but examinations of other populations exist, including juvenile offenders (Piquero and Sealock 2000), university-aged adults (Ganem 2010; Mazerolle and Piquero 1997; Mazerolle, et al. 2000), adults (Tittle, Broidy, and Gertz 2008), African American adults (Jang and Johnson 2003; Jang 2007), and South Korean youth (Moon, Blurton, and McCluskey 2008; Moon, et al. …

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the connection of general strain theory to opportunity, defined by one's desire and ability to engage in criminal or deviant behavior, and found that peer deviance, social bonds, and opportunity were important significant predictors.
Abstract: This study examined the connection of general strain theory to opportunity, as defined by one’s desire and ability to engage in criminal or deviant behavior. Over 1,000 undergraduate students completed the electronic survey with a response rate of 12.85%. Regression analyses showed removal of positive stimuli predicted deviant behavior in all models, but anger and other affective states were significant only in some models. Peer deviance, social bonds, and opportunity were important significant predictors. This study supports Agnew’s assertions that strain theory works in conjunction with social learning, social control, and, per this study, opportunity theories.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined whether individuals who successfully completed a court diversion program for indigent defendants were less likely to reoffend than their counterparts who failed to complete the diversion program.
Abstract: Municipal Courts in the United States have jurisdiction over cases involving municipal ordinance violations such as loitering, trespassing, public drunkenness, and vandalism. When an individual violates a city ordinance, the typical punishment is a fine, even if the defendant is indigent. Failure to pay the fine on time results in a warrant and possible jail time. This study examined whether individuals who successfully completed a court diversion program for indigent defendants were less likely to reoffend than their counterparts who failed to complete the diversion program. Findings showed clients who successfully completed the diversion program were less likely to commit future city violations and state offenses. The results suggest court diversion programs might offer a promising alternative to jail for some indigent defendants and aid with lowering recidivism at least within the first few years of their initial offense.

6 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Refugee Children: Towards the Next Horizon as discussed by the authors is a rich and sophisticated resource for scholars and practitioners interested in the experience of forced migrants in general and refugee youth in particular.
Abstract: refugee children, Watters’ book provides more generally significant insights into a wide array of issues relevant to contemporary refugees. Rather than concentrating on those who receive refugee status from host societies, Watters asserts “the focus of this book is not restricted to legal and administrative definitions of refugee children, but instead accords with what Zolberg has referred to as a ‘sociological’ definition ‘grounded in observable social realities’” (p. 2). In addition, Watters draws extensively from contemporary theorists of inequality, exclusion and domination—Michel Foucault, Aihwa Ong, Pierre Bourdieu, Homi Bhabha, Liisa Malkki among them—to create a refined appreciation of the ways that states and bureaucracies affect refugees’ understandings of themselves, their social position and their ability to act in their own interest. Refugee Children is based upon the analysis of refugees in several (mostly European) countries of settlement, including Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and especially the U.K., which according to the author is regarded by many stateless persons as the most desirable point of settlement. In addition, the book examines populations originating from and travelling through multiple world regions. Drawing from his own research as well as his reviews of journalistic and academic literature, Watters gives readers numerous first-hand accounts of the settings, interactions and assistance programs that refugee youth encounter. The author carefully attends to the origins of refugees, considering their history, religion and cultural background. Based on this, he questions both the assimilationist approach to refugee resettlement that would compel recent arrivals into the acceptance of host society practices in order to facilitate access to jobs and health care, as well as multicultural models that see refugees as inextricably immersed in the cultural and religious patterns of their country of origin, and as such, fundamentally unlike persons native to the host society. Championing neither, he regards both as paternalistic and potentially limiting to refugee children’s ability to make choices based upon their own outlooks, goals and understandings. In a like manner, Watters assesses models of resettlement in terms of their allocation of resources. He critiques both tight-fisted programs that fail to provide minimal levels of support as well as therapeutic regimes that assume all forced migrants to be deeply wounded and as such, in immediate need of culturally alien and sometimes unwanted rehabilitation. Despite its impressive scholarship, Refugee Children: Towards the Next Horizon is not simply an exercise in academic analysis. Rather, it offers valuable information with many practical examples drawn from successful programs devoted to refugee youth. If there is one downside to this book, it is that the volume is so rich in theories, examples, case studies, suggestions for practice and evaluations of the political and ethical implications of various approaches to working with young refugees, that readers may become overwhelmed. Its scholarly exuberance notwithstanding, Refugee Children: Towards the Next Horizon is a thought-provoking and sophisticated resource for scholars and practitioners interested in the experience of forced migrants in general and refugee youth in particular. The book does an impressive job of filling the conceptual, contextual and theoretical gaps that have, until recently, limited the breadth and quality of research on forced migrants.

393 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Robert Agnew1
TL;DR: This article argued that individuals must possess a set of characteristics that together create a strong propensity for criminal coping, experience crimiogenic strains, which are perceived as unjust and high in magnitude; and be in circumstances conducive to criminal coping.
Abstract: General strain theory predicts that several variables influence or condition the effect of strains on crime. The research on such conditioning effects, however, has produced mixed results at best. The larger stress and coping literature suggests why this is the case: a given conditioning variable has a small to modest effect on the choice of coping strategy, since there are hundreds of strategies from which to choose and the choice of strategy is influenced by several factors. Drawing on this insight and several literatures, it is argued that certain factors must converge before criminal coping is likely: individuals must (a) possess a set of characteristics that together create a strong propensity for criminal coping, (b) experience crimiogenic strains, which are perceived as unjust and high in magnitude; and (c) be in circumstances conducive to criminal coping. Qualitative studies provide support for this argument, and guidelines for quantitative testing are provided.

188 citations