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Jeremy Levy

Bio: Jeremy Levy is an academic researcher from University of Pittsburgh. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nanowire & Electron. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 227 publications receiving 9228 citations. Previous affiliations of Jeremy Levy include United States Naval Research Laboratory & Technion – Israel Institute of Technology.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
12 Aug 2004-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that epitaxial strain from a newly developed substrate can be harnessed to increase Tc by hundreds of degrees and produce room-temperature ferro electricity in strontium titanate, a material that is not normally ferroelectric at any temperature.
Abstract: Systems with a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition in the vicinity of room temperature are useful for devices. Adjusting the ferroelectric transition temperature (T(c)) is traditionally accomplished by chemical substitution-as in Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO(3), the material widely investigated for microwave devices in which the dielectric constant (epsilon(r)) at GHz frequencies is tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Heterogeneity associated with chemical substitution in such films, however, can broaden this phase transition by hundreds of degrees, which is detrimental to tunability and microwave device performance. An alternative way to adjust T(c) in ferroelectric films is strain. Here we show that epitaxial strain from a newly developed substrate can be harnessed to increase T(c) by hundreds of degrees and produce room-temperature ferroelectricity in strontium titanate, a material that is not normally ferroelectric at any temperature. This strain-induced enhancement in T(c) is the largest ever reported. Spatially resolved images of the local polarization state reveal a uniformity that far exceeds films tailored by chemical substitution. The high epsilon(r) at room temperature in these films (nearly 7,000 at 10 GHz) and its sharp dependence on electric field are promising for device applications.

1,861 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reported the creation and erasure of nanoscale conducting regions at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3.
Abstract: Experimental and theoretical investigations have demonstrated that a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q-2DEG) can form at the interface between two insulators: non-polar SrTiO3 and polar LaTiO3 (ref. 2), LaAlO3 (refs 3-5), KTaO3 (ref. 7) or LaVO3 (ref. 6). Electronically, the situation is analogous to the q-2DEGs formed in semiconductor heterostructures by modulation doping. LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures have recently been shown to exhibit a hysteretic electric-field-induced metal-insulator quantum phase transition for LaAlO3 thicknesses of 3 unit cells. Here, we report the creation and erasure of nanoscale conducting regions at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Using voltages applied by a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) probe, the buried LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is locally and reversibly switched between insulating and conducting states. Persistent field effects are observed using the AFM probe as a gate. Patterning of conducting lines with widths of approximately 3 nm, as well as arrays of conducting islands with densities >10(14) inch(-2), is demonstrated. The patterned structures are stable for >24 h at room temperature.

494 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Feb 2009-Science
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate nanoscale lateral confinement of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at a lanthanum aluminate-strontium titanate interface.
Abstract: Electronic confinement at nanoscale dimensions remains a central means of science and technology. We demonstrate nanoscale lateral confinement of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at a lanthanum aluminate-strontium titanate interface. Control of this confinement using an atomic force microscope lithography technique enabled us to create tunnel junctions and field-effect transistors with characteristic dimensions as small as 2 nanometers. These electronic devices can be modified or erased without the need for complex lithographic procedures. Our on-demand nanoelectronics fabrication platform has the potential for widespread technological application.

430 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The creation and erasure of nanoscale conducting regions at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 are reported.
Abstract: Experimental and theoretical investigations have demonstrated that a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q-2DEG) can form at the interface between two insulators: non-polar SrTiO3 and polar LaTiO3 (ref. 2), LaAlO3 (refs 3-5), KTaO3 (ref. 7) or LaVO3 (ref. 6). Electronically, the situation is analogous to the q-2DEGs formed in semiconductor heterostructures by modulation doping. LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures have recently been shown to exhibit a hysteretic electric-field-induced metal-insulator quantum phase transition for LaAlO3 thicknesses of 3 unit cells. Here, we report the creation and erasure of nanoscale conducting regions at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Using voltages applied by a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) probe, the buried LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is locally and reversibly switched between insulating and conducting states. Persistent field effects are observed using the AFM probe as a gate. Patterning of conducting lines with widths of approximately 3 nm, as well as arrays of conducting islands with densities >10(14) inch(-2), is demonstrated. The patterned structures are stable for >24 h at room temperature.

402 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This work demonstrates nanoscale lateral confinement of a quasi–two-dimensional electron gas at a lanthanum aluminate–strontium titanate interface and controls this confinement using an atomic force microscope lithography technique to create tunnel junctions and field-effect transistors with characteristic dimensions as small as 2 nanometers.
Abstract: Electronic confinement at nanoscale dimensions remains a central means of science and technology. We demonstrate nanoscale lateral confinement of a quasi–two-dimensional electron gas at a lanthanum aluminate–strontium titanate interface. Control of this confinement using an atomic force microscope lithography technique enabled us to create tunnel junctions and field-effect transistors with characteristic dimensions as small as 2 nanometers. These electronic devices can be modified or erased without the need for complex lithographic procedures. Our on-demand nanoelectronics fabrication platform has the potential for widespread technological application.

382 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Nov 2001-Science
TL;DR: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron, which has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices.
Abstract: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.

9,917 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems as discussed by the authors, where the primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport.
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

9,158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarize both the basic physics and unresolved aspects of BiFeO3 and device applications, which center on spintronics and memory devices that can be addressed both electrically and magnetically.
Abstract: BiFeO3 is perhaps the only material that is both magnetic and a strong ferroelectric at room temperature. As a result, it has had an impact on the field of multiferroics that is comparable to that of yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) on superconductors, with hundreds of publications devoted to it in the past few years. In this Review, we try to summarize both the basic physics and unresolved aspects of BiFeO3 (which are still being discovered with several new phase transitions reported in the past few months) and device applications, which center on spintronics and memory devices that can be addressed both electrically and magnetically.

3,526 citations