Author

# Jerzy Lewandowski

Other affiliations: University of Florida, Syracuse University, Beijing Normal University ...read more

Bio: Jerzy Lewandowski is an academic researcher from University of Warsaw. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Quantum gravity & Loop quantum gravity. The author has an hindex of 46, co-authored 201 publication(s) receiving 13291 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Jerzy Lewandowski include University of Florida & Syracuse University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: Loop quantum gravity as discussed by the authors is a background-independent, non-perturbative approach to the problem of unification of general relativity and quantum physics, based on a quantum theory of geometry.

Abstract: The goal of this review is to present an introduction to loop quantum gravity—a background-independent, non-perturbative approach to the problem of unification of general relativity and quantum physics, based on a quantum theory of geometry. Our presentation is pedagogical. Thus, in addition to providing a bird's eye view of the present status of the subject, the review should also serve as a vehicle to enter the field and explore it in detail. To aid non-experts, very little is assumed beyond elements of general relativity, gauge theories and quantum field theory. While the review is essentially self-contained, the emphasis is on communicating the underlying ideas and the significance of results rather than on presenting systematic derivations and detailed proofs. (These can be found in the listed references.) The subject can be approached in different ways. We have chosen one which is deeply rooted in well-established physics and also has sufficient mathematical precision to ensure that there are no hidden infinities. In order to keep the review to a reasonable size, and to avoid overwhelming non-experts, we have had to leave out several interesting topics, results and viewpoints; this is meant to be an introduction to the subject rather than an exhaustive review of it.

1,669 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a functional calculus for quantum geometry is developed for a fully nonperturbative treatment of quantum gravity, which is used to begin a systematic construction of a quantum theory of geometry, and Regulated operators corresponding to 2-surfaces are introduced and shown to be self-adjoint on the underlying (kinematical) Hilbert space of states.

Abstract: A new functional calculus, developed recently for a fully non-perturbative treatment of quantum gravity, is used to begin a systematic construction of a quantum theory of geometry. Regulated operators corresponding to areas of 2-surfaces are introduced and shown to be self-adjoint on the underlying (kinematical) Hilbert space of states. It is shown that their spectra are purely discrete, indicating that the underlying quantum geometry is far from what the continuum picture might suggest. Indeed, the fundamental excitations of quantum geometry are one dimensional, rather like polymers, and the three-dimensional continuum geometry emerges only on coarse graining. The full Hilbert space admits an orthonormal decomposition into finite-dimensional subspaces which can be interpreted as the spaces of states of spin systems. Using this property, the complete spectrum of the area operators is evaluated. The general framework constructed here will be used in a subsequent paper to discuss three-dimensional geometric operators, e.g. the ones corresponding to volumes of regions.

749 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the precise mathematical structure underlying loop quantum cosmology and the sense in which it implements the full quantization program in a symmetry reduced model has been made explicit, thereby providing a firmer mathematical and conceptual foundation to the subject.

Abstract: Applications of Riemannian quantum geometry to cosmology have had notable successes. In particular, the fundamental discreteness underlying quantum geometry has led to a natural resolution of the big bang singularity. However, the precise mathematical structure underlying loop quantum cosmology and the sense in which it implements the full quantization program in a symmetry reduced model has not been made explicit. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues, thereby providing a firmer mathematical and conceptual foundation to the subject.

743 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a quantization of diffeomorphism invariant theories of connections is studied and the quantum diffeomorphicism constraint is solved and the space of solutions is equipped with an inner product that is shown to satisfy the physical reality conditions.

Abstract: Quantization of diffeomorphism invariant theories of connections is studied and the quantum diffeomorphism constraint is solved. The space of solutions is equipped with an inner product that is shown to satisfy the physical reality conditions. This provides, in particular, a quantization of the Husain–Kuchař model. The main results also pave the way to quantization of other diffeomorphism invariant theories such as general relativity. In the Riemannian case (i.e., signature ++++), the approach appears to contain all the necessary ingredients already. In the Lorentzian case, it will have to be combined in an appropriate fashion with a coherent state transform to incorporate complex connections.

688 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a functional calculus is used to construct a quantum theory of geometry, where the fundamental excitations of quantum geometry are 1-dimensional, rather like polymers, and the 3-dimensional continuum geometry emerges only on coarse graining.

Abstract: A new functional calculus, developed recently for a fully non-perturbative treatment of quantum gravity, is used to begin a systematic construction of a quantum theory of geometry. Regulated operators corresponding to areas of 2-surfaces are introduced and shown to be self-adjoint on the underlying (kinematical) Hilbert space of states. It is shown that their spectra are {\it purely} discrete indicating that the underlying quantum geometry is far from what the continuum picture might suggest. Indeed, the fundamental excitations of quantum geometry are 1-dimensional, rather like polymers, and the 3-dimensional continuum geometry emerges only on coarse graining. The full Hilbert space admits an orthonormal decomposition into finite dimensional sub-spaces which can be interpreted as the spaces of states of spin systems. Using this property, the complete spectrum of the area operators is evaluated. The general framework constructed here will be used in a subsequent paper to discuss 3-dimensional geometric operators, e.g., the ones corresponding to volumes of regions.

597 citations

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28,684 citations

01 Dec 1982

1,777 citations

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TL;DR: Loop quantum gravity as discussed by the authors is a background-independent, non-perturbative approach to the problem of unification of general relativity and quantum physics, based on a quantum theory of geometry.

Abstract: The goal of this review is to present an introduction to loop quantum gravity—a background-independent, non-perturbative approach to the problem of unification of general relativity and quantum physics, based on a quantum theory of geometry. Our presentation is pedagogical. Thus, in addition to providing a bird's eye view of the present status of the subject, the review should also serve as a vehicle to enter the field and explore it in detail. To aid non-experts, very little is assumed beyond elements of general relativity, gauge theories and quantum field theory. While the review is essentially self-contained, the emphasis is on communicating the underlying ideas and the significance of results rather than on presenting systematic derivations and detailed proofs. (These can be found in the listed references.) The subject can be approached in different ways. We have chosen one which is deeply rooted in well-established physics and also has sufficient mathematical precision to ensure that there are no hidden infinities. In order to keep the review to a reasonable size, and to avoid overwhelming non-experts, we have had to leave out several interesting topics, results and viewpoints; this is meant to be an introduction to the subject rather than an exhaustive review of it.

1,669 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an improved Hamiltonian constraint operator is introduced in loop quantum cosmology for the isotropic model with a massless scalar field and the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce.

Abstract: An improved Hamiltonian constraint operator is introduced in loop quantum cosmology. Quantum dynamics of the spatially flat, isotropic model with a massless scalar field is then studied in detail using analytical and numerical methods. The scalar field continues to serve as ''emergent time'', the big bang is again replaced by a quantum bounce, and quantum evolution remains deterministic across the deep Planck regime. However, while with the Hamiltonian constraint used so far in loop quantum cosmology the quantum bounce can occur even at low matter densities, with the new Hamiltonian constraint it occurs only at a Planck-scale density. Thus, the new quantum dynamics retains the attractive features of current evolutions in loop quantum cosmology but, at the same time, cures their main weakness.

1,057 citations

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TL;DR: Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) as mentioned in this paper is the result of applying principles of loop quantum gravity to cosmological settings, where quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low spacetime curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction.

Abstract: Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the result of applying principles of loop quantum gravity (LQG) to cosmological settings. The distinguishing feature of LQC is the prominent role played by the quantum geometry effects of LQG. In particular, quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low spacetime curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction. In cosmological models, while Einstein's equations hold to an excellent degree of approximation at low curvature, they undergo major modifications in the Planck regime: for matter satisfying the usual energy conditions, any time a curvature invariant grows to the Planck scale, quantum geometry effects dilute it, thereby resolving singularities of general relativity. Quantum geometry corrections become more sophisticated as the models become richer. In particular, in anisotropic models, there are significant changes in the dynamics of shear potentials which tame their singular behavior in striking contrast to older results on anisotropies in bouncing models. Once singularities are resolved, the conceptual paradigm of cosmology changes and one has to revisit many of the standard issues—e.g. the 'horizon problem'—from a new perspective. Such conceptual issues as well as potential observational consequences of the new Planck scale physics are being explored, especially within the inflationary paradigm. These considerations have given rise to a burst of activity in LQC in recent years, with contributions from quantum gravity experts, mathematical physicists and cosmologists. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of the art in LQC for three sets of audiences: young researchers interested in entering this area; the quantum gravity community in general and cosmologists who wish to apply LQC to probe modifications in the standard paradigm of the early universe. In this review, effort has been made to streamline the material so that each of these communities can read only the sections they are most interested in, without loss of continuity.

1,004 citations