Other affiliations: Michigan State University, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
Bio: Jianjiang Feng is an academic researcher from Tsinghua University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fingerprint (computing) & Fingerprint. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 150 publications receiving 5075 citations. Previous affiliations of Jianjiang Feng include Michigan State University & Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This work proposes a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensics and uses minutiae as features and a robust algorithm to estimate ridge direction and frequency in palmprints facilitates minutia extraction even in poor quality palmprints.
Abstract: The evidential value of palmprints in forensics is clear as about 30% of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While palmprint-based personal authentication systems have been developed, they mostly deal with low resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensics. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi and uses minutiae as features. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latents lifted at crime scenes are of poor quality, cover small area of palms and have complex background. Other difficulties include the presence of many creases and a large number of minutiae in palmprints. A robust algorithm to estimate ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates minutiae extraction even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based matching algorithm is used to match palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latents) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7% and 69%, respectively, were achieved for live-scan palmprints and latents.
TL;DR: A novel minutiae-based fingerprint matching algorithm that ranks 1st on DB3, the most difficult database in FVC2002, and on the average ranks 2nd on all 4 databases.
Abstract: A novel minutiae-based fingerprint matching algorithm is proposed. A minutiae matching algorithm has to solve two problems: correspondence and similarity computation. For the correspondence problem, we assign each minutia two descriptors: texture-based and minutiae-based descriptors, and use an alignment-based greedy matching algorithm to establish the correspondences between minutiae. For the similarity computation, we extract a 17-D feature vector from the matching result, and convert the feature vector into a matching score using support vector classifier. The proposed algorithm is tested on FVC2002 databases and compared to all participators in FVC2002. According to equal error rate, the proposed algorithm ranks 1st on DB3, the most difficult database in FVC2002, and on the average ranks 2nd on all 4 databases.
TL;DR: The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.
Abstract: Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.
TL;DR: A novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image, and it is shown that both types of attacks can be successfully launched against a fingerprint recognition system.
Abstract: Fingerprint matching systems generally use four types of representation schemes: grayscale image, phase image, skeleton image, and minutiae, among which minutiae-based representation is the most widely adopted one. The compactness of minutiae representation has created an impression that the minutiae template does not contain sufficient information to allow the reconstruction of the original grayscale fingerprint image. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. These techniques try to either reconstruct the skeleton image, which is then converted into the grayscale image, or reconstruct the grayscale image directly from the minutiae template. However, they have a common drawback: Many spurious minutiae not included in the original minutiae template are generated in the reconstructed image. Moreover, some of these reconstruction techniques can only generate a partial fingerprint. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm not only gives the whole fingerprint, but the reconstructed fingerprint contains very few spurious minutiae. Specifically, a fingerprint image is represented as a phase image which consists of the continuous phase and the spiral phase (which corresponds to minutiae). An algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the continuous phase from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be successfully launched against a fingerprint recognition system.
23 Jun 2014
TL;DR: It is found that grouping effect is important for subspace clustering, which should be explicitly enforced in the data self-representation model, rather than implicitly implied by the model as in some prior work.
Abstract: Subspace clustering is a powerful technology for clustering data according to the underlying subspaces. Representation based methods are the most popular subspace clustering approach in recent years. In this paper, we analyze the grouping effect of representation based methods in depth. In particular, we introduce the enforced grouping effect conditions, which greatly facilitate the analysis of grouping effect. We further find that grouping effect is important for subspace clustering, which should be explicitly enforced in the data self-representation model, rather than implicitly implied by the model as in some prior work. Based on our analysis, we propose the SMooth Representation (SMR) model. We also propose a new affinity measure based on the grouping effect, which proves to be much more effective than the commonly used one. As a result, our SMR significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art ones on benchmark datasets.
07 Jun 2015
TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).
Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.
01 Jan 1979
TL;DR: This special issue aims at gathering the recent advances in learning with shared information methods and their applications in computer vision and multimedia analysis and addressing interesting real-world computer Vision and multimedia applications.
Abstract: In the real world, a realistic setting for computer vision or multimedia recognition problems is that we have some classes containing lots of training data and many classes contain a small amount of training data. Therefore, how to use frequent classes to help learning rare classes for which it is harder to collect the training data is an open question. Learning with Shared Information is an emerging topic in machine learning, computer vision and multimedia analysis. There are different level of components that can be shared during concept modeling and machine learning stages, such as sharing generic object parts, sharing attributes, sharing transformations, sharing regularization parameters and sharing training examples, etc. Regarding the specific methods, multi-task learning, transfer learning and deep learning can be seen as using different strategies to share information. These learning with shared information methods are very effective in solving real-world large-scale problems. This special issue aims at gathering the recent advances in learning with shared information methods and their applications in computer vision and multimedia analysis. Both state-of-the-art works, as well as literature reviews, are welcome for submission. Papers addressing interesting real-world computer vision and multimedia applications are especially encouraged. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Multi-task learning or transfer learning for large-scale computer vision and multimedia analysis • Deep learning for large-scale computer vision and multimedia analysis • Multi-modal approach for large-scale computer vision and multimedia analysis • Different sharing strategies, e.g., sharing generic object parts, sharing attributes, sharing transformations, sharing regularization parameters and sharing training examples, • Real-world computer vision and multimedia applications based on learning with shared information, e.g., event detection, object recognition, object detection, action recognition, human head pose estimation, object tracking, location-based services, semantic indexing. • New datasets and metrics to evaluate the benefit of the proposed sharing ability for the specific computer vision or multimedia problem. • Survey papers regarding the topic of learning with shared information. Authors who are unsure whether their planned submission is in scope may contact the guest editors prior to the submission deadline with an abstract, in order to receive feedback.
TL;DR: Computer and Robot Vision Vol.
Abstract: Computer and Robot Vision Vol. 1, by R.M. Haralick and Linda G. Shapiro, Addison-Wesley, 1992, ISBN 0-201-10887-1.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven1, Public Health Research Institute2, Leiden University3, John Radcliffe Hospital4, University of Oxford5, Keele University6, Medical University of Vienna7, University Medical Center Utrecht8, University College Cork9, University of Pennsylvania10, University of Cologne11, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre12, University of Aberdeen13, RMIT University14, University of Manchester15, University of Amsterdam16, Imperial College London17, University of Ioannina18, Maastricht University Medical Centre19, Humboldt University of Berlin20
TL;DR: Proposed models for covid-19 are poorly reported, at high risk of bias, and their reported performance is probably optimistic, according to a review of published and preprint reports.
Abstract: Objective To review and appraise the validity and usefulness of published and preprint reports of prediction models for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in patients with suspected infection, for prognosis of patients with covid-19, and for detecting people in the general population at increased risk of covid-19 infection or being admitted to hospital with the disease. Design Living systematic review and critical appraisal by the COVID-PRECISE (Precise Risk Estimation to optimise covid-19 Care for Infected or Suspected patients in diverse sEttings) group. Data sources PubMed and Embase through Ovid, up to 1 July 2020, supplemented with arXiv, medRxiv, and bioRxiv up to 5 May 2020. Study selection Studies that developed or validated a multivariable covid-19 related prediction model. Data extraction At least two authors independently extracted data using the CHARMS (critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies) checklist; risk of bias was assessed using PROBAST (prediction model risk of bias assessment tool). Results 37 421 titles were screened, and 169 studies describing 232 prediction models were included. The review identified seven models for identifying people at risk in the general population; 118 diagnostic models for detecting covid-19 (75 were based on medical imaging, 10 to diagnose disease severity); and 107 prognostic models for predicting mortality risk, progression to severe disease, intensive care unit admission, ventilation, intubation, or length of hospital stay. The most frequent types of predictors included in the covid-19 prediction models are vital signs, age, comorbidities, and image features. Flu-like symptoms are frequently predictive in diagnostic models, while sex, C reactive protein, and lymphocyte counts are frequent prognostic factors. Reported C index estimates from the strongest form of validation available per model ranged from 0.71 to 0.99 in prediction models for the general population, from 0.65 to more than 0.99 in diagnostic models, and from 0.54 to 0.99 in prognostic models. All models were rated at high or unclear risk of bias, mostly because of non-representative selection of control patients, exclusion of patients who had not experienced the event of interest by the end of the study, high risk of model overfitting, and unclear reporting. Many models did not include a description of the target population (n=27, 12%) or care setting (n=75, 32%), and only 11 (5%) were externally validated by a calibration plot. The Jehi diagnostic model and the 4C mortality score were identified as promising models. Conclusion Prediction models for covid-19 are quickly entering the academic literature to support medical decision making at a time when they are urgently needed. This review indicates that almost all pubished prediction models are poorly reported, and at high risk of bias such that their reported predictive performance is probably optimistic. However, we have identified two (one diagnostic and one prognostic) promising models that should soon be validated in multiple cohorts, preferably through collaborative efforts and data sharing to also allow an investigation of the stability and heterogeneity in their performance across populations and settings. Details on all reviewed models are publicly available at https://www.covprecise.org/. Methodological guidance as provided in this paper should be followed because unreliable predictions could cause more harm than benefit in guiding clinical decisions. Finally, prediction model authors should adhere to the TRIPOD (transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis) reporting guideline. Systematic review registration Protocol https://osf.io/ehc47/, registration https://osf.io/wy245. Readers’ note This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication. This version is update 3 of the original article published on 7 April 2020 (BMJ 2020;369:m1328). Previous updates can be found as data supplements (https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1328/related#datasupp). When citing this paper please consider adding the update number and date of access for clarity.